General Education at Bethel University requires students to take several specific courses along with their choice of courses from various categories. Most of the courses listed below fulfill one of these course or category requirements; however, this is not an exhaustive list. The letter appended to a course number indicates the General Education category to which it belongs. See “The General Education Program” and “Pillars of the General Education Curriculum” in the Academic Information section of this catalog for a further description of the purpose and requirements of the General Education program at Bethel University.

First Year General Education Options

First year students at Bethel choose between two options for some of their General Education requirements: CWILT or the Humanities Program. Both options provide students with a liberal arts foundation to prepare them to succeed in college and throughout their lives. 

CWILT

CWILT takes a modular approach. There are five courses, each covering a different area of study:

  • Creative Arts (ICA)
  • Christianity and Western Culture (CWC)
  • Inquiry Seminar (IQ)
  • L Course (Contemporary Western Life and Thought)
  • Theology

Each course is focused on a single area of study, whether that means exploring Christianity's role in Western Civilization in CWC, learning to write academic papers in Inquiry Seminar, or studying the foundations of Christian faith in Christian Theology. Students choose their Contemporary Western Life and Thought (L) course, so they can focus on aspects of modern American life that most interests them. 

The Humanities Program

The Humanities Program is a four-course sequence consisting of GES145GES147GES244, and GES246.  It emphasizes in-depth reading, discussion, and analysis of texts and works of art.  Students experience literature, theology, philosophy, music, theatre, and art in historical context.  They learn the foundations of theology and see how Christians have shaped and responded to Western culture.  The four-course sequence must be taken in order and replaces five courses in the General Education CWILT option [ GES125GES130GES140THE201, and a Contemporary Western Life and Thought (L) course].  To derive full benefit from the Humanities Program, students should complete the entire program: Western Humanities in Christian Perspective I-IV.  See the Academic Information section of this catalog for further information.  Contact the director of the Humanities Program for details.

GES101 • Pre-Intercultural Engagement Preparation. 0.5 Credits.

Provides preparation for students who wish to participate in a non-credit experience for fulfillment of the cross-cultural experience (Z) requirement. Faculty guided pre-processing includes introduction to a method of reflection and analysis of the intercultural experience, assistance in creating a proposal for the Z-tag experience, and an opportunity to develop mid-experience exercises and activities to present in GES102Z. Completion of the GES101 does not complete the Z-tag requirement, but is a pre-requisite for GES102Z. GES101 must be taken before participating in the cross-cultural experience. Graded on an S/U basis.

GES102Z • Post-Intercultural Engagement Processing. 0.5 Credits.

Provides the guided post-processing experience necessary for students to benefit fully from a cross-cultural experience. Designed to follow an independent cross-cultural experience to complete the cross-cultural experience (Z) requirements. Includes evaluation of the application of the method of reflection and analysis used during the intercultural experience, evaluation of the implementation of the non-credit proposal approved in GES101, and evaluation of the mid-experience exercises and activities. Prerequisite: GES101. Must be taken the semester following the completion of the independent cross-cultural experience. Graded on an S/U basis.

GES103 • Writing Studio for Multilingual Learners. 1 Credit.

Focuses on knowledge and skills necessary for successful college-level academic research and writing in the U.S. Students will apply reading and writing strategies to other course writing assignments. Instruction tailored to English Language Learners (international or immigrant students from non-English speaking backgrounds). Graded on an S/U basis.

GES108 • Introduction to Life at Bethel. 1 Credit.

Introduces transfer students to a liberal arts education at Bethel as a foundation for scholarship, leadership, and service in a changing world. Together students explore common issues of transition, personal strengths, and community. Students are oriented to resources (i.e., Bethel Library, essential technology, academic tutoring, etc.) to support and enhance the educational experience at Bethel.

GES109 • Orientation to College Studies. 2 Credits.

Students understand and improve their approach to learning to enhance success in college. Strategies developed in this course are directly applied to learning in the Christianity and Western Culture course as well as other courses taken during fall term.
Corequisites: Consent of instructor, enrollment in Christianity and Western Culture (GES130). Offered: Fall.

GES125 • Introduction to the Creative Arts. 4 Credits.

Introduces the creative arts and highlights their crucial role in human experience. Art forms included each semester are chosen from music, visual arts, theatre, dance, literature, or film, and highlight their crucial role in human experience. Creative works spanning stylistic, social, and historical contexts are examined in light of such issues as relationships, religion, death/ despair, and humor. Students experience and critically interact with creative works and reflect on them from a Christian worldview, with the goal of developing literacy in artistic language as a tool for exploration and aesthetic interpretation and evaluation.
Offered: Fall, interim, spring.

GES130 • Christianity & Western Culture. 4 Credits.

Seeks to help students understand the key movements that have influenced the lives of people in Europe and North America up through the Enlightenment. Students explore with insight and empathy the writings and lives of those who have influenced the course of world societies. Prepares students to appreciate and evaluate the diverse ways in which Christians have interacted with Western culture by shaping, absorbing, and criticizing the culture of the West. The Humanities Program .
Offered: Fall, interim, spring.

GES140 • Introduction to Wellbeing. 3 Credits.

Explores many of the dimensions that influence wellbeing: including Spiritual, Cognitive, Emotional, Physical, Relational, and Meaning. Examines the dynamic interconnection between the dimensions. Students integrate foundational knowledge, experiences, and strategies to become successful whole and holy individuals not only in college but also throughout adult life.
Offered: Fall, Spring.

GES145 • Humanities I: Greco-Roman through Middle Ages. 4 Credits.

The first course in the Humanities Program focuses on great writings and works of art, music, and theatre from the Greeks through the Middle Ages. Likely figures for study include Plato, Aristotle, Augustine, Anselm, and Dante.
Offered: Fall.

GES147 • Humanities II: Renaissance and Reformation. 4 Credits.

The second course considers significant figures, movements, and texts in the Renaissance and the Reformation era. Likely figures for study include Luther, Calvin, Erasmus, Anabaptist writers, Renaissance and baroque artists, and Shakespeare.
Prerequisites: GES145. Offered: Interim. Special Notes: Completing GES147 replaces GES125 Introduction to the Creative Arts.

GES160 • Inquiry Seminar. 3 Credits.

While exploring a specific topic of interest, students develop and understand the meaning and value of a liberal arts education in the Christian tradition. The seminar promotes the establishment of community among students, faculty, and varying aspects of student life. The seminar provides students with instruction and practice in writing as well as in preparing and delivering oral presentations. Supplemental assignments and activities outside the traditional classroom are required.
Offered: Fall, Spring.

GES203 • Writing Studio for Multilingual Learners. 1 Credit.

Focuses on knowledge and skills necessary for successful college-level academic research and writing in the U.S. Students will apply reading and writing strategies to other course writing assignments. Instruction tailored to English Language Learners (international or immigrant students from non-English speaking backgrounds). Graded on an S/U basis.

GES208 • Human Sexuality. 3 Credits.

An examination of sexuality through the life cycle, focusing on the nature of sexual and reproductive functioning, sexual self-understanding, sexual dimensions of interpersonal relationships, and ethical dimensions of sexuality.
Offered: Spring.

GES244 • Humanities III: European Enlightenment and American Culture to 1877. 4 Credits.

The third course begins in the European Enlightenment and culminates in a research paper on American culture through the Reconstruction era. Likely figures for study include, Edwards, Bach, Beethoven, Austen, Burke, Paine, The Federalist, de Tocqueville, American Transcendentalist writers, Frederick Douglass, and Abraham Lincoln.
Prerequisites: GES147. Offered: Spring. Special Notes: Completing GES244 replaces GES160 Inquiry Seminar and GES130 Christianity and Western Culture.

GES246 • Humanities IV: Modern and Contemporary Western Culture. 4 Credits.

The final course in the Humanities Program begins with the 19th century Industrial Revolution and ends near the present. It includes a major paper on theology. Likely subjects for study include Marx, Nietzsche, T.S. Eliot, jazz, modern art, Bonhoeffer, and Martin Luther King Jr.
Prerequisites: GES244. Offered: Fall. Special Notes: Completing GES246 replaces THE201 Christian Theology and a Contemporary Western Life and Thought (L) course.

GES302K • Lethal Microbes. 3 Credits.

Despite amazing scientific and technical successes in medicine in the last century, diseases like AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria confront us today with both national and global healthcare crises. Living with the lethal microbes responsible for these diseases requires careful inquiry about these organisms and their wide impact on human society.
Prerequisites: Laboratory Science (D) course; Mathematics (M) course. Offered: Occasionally

GES303K • Genetics, Ethics and the Law. 3 Credits.

Study of the ethical and legal dilemmas created by recent advances in biotechnology. Focus on the question of what direction the law should take, specifically in the areas of patent, family, and criminal law. Exploration of the struggle between the Christian worldview, these rapid changes in science, and society’s resolution of the questions these changes produce.
Prerequisites: Laboratory Science (D) course; Mathematics (M) course. Offered: Occasionally

GES305K • HIV/AIDS:Anatomy of a Pandemic. 3 Credits.

Exploration of the history, biology, and social and global impact of the HIV/AIDS pandemic since discovery of the human immunodeficiency virus in 1983. Evaluation of technological advances that have generated anti-retroviral therapies, technological challenges that have prevented vaccine development, and social factors related to availability of medical treatment.
Prerequisites: Laboratory Science (D) course; Mathematics (M) course. Offered: Occasionally interim

GES306K • Nuclear Energy: Past and Present. 3 Credits.

Basic scientific principles underlying nuclear fission and fusion, along with a survey of the history of nuclear weapons and reactors from 1935 to the present. Topics include weapon construction and design, delivery systems, and nuclear deterrence, along with current arms reduction agreements and waste problems.
Prerequisites: Laboratory Science (D) course; Mathematics (M) course. Offered: Occasionally

GES307K • Natural Resources: Use Them but Don't Lose Them. 3 Credits.

A consideration of the use and management of natural resources and their impact on society and vice versa. Primary resources considered include forests, agricultural land, and geologic/ mineral resources. Global Postitioning System (GPS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) technologies are spotlighted as key management tools.
Prerequisites: Laboratory Science (D) course; Mathematics (M) course. Offered: Spring

GES308K • Genomic Archaeology and Scientific Revolution. 3 Credits.

Advances in DNA technology have led to the sequencing of whole genomes, including the human genome, and to a revolution in science. Questions of this course include: “What is this technology?” “How does it work?” and “What does it mean to you and me?” Applications related to diabetes, cancer, forensics, genetic engineering, and the nature of life itself are discussed.
Prerequisites: Laboratory Science (D) course; Mathematics (M) course. Offered: Occasionally

GES309K • Biology of the Mind. 3 Credits.

Survey of contemporary technologies and studies of brain structure and function and their relation to cognitive abilities and emotion. Introduction to modern technologies of brain mapping such as MRI, PET, and CAT scans. Combines neuroscience, philosophy of self, psychology, linguistics, and sociobiology.
Prerequisites: Laboratory Science (D) course; Mathematics (M) course. Offered: Occasionally interim

GES310K • Human Impacts on Coral Reefs. 3 Credits.

Travels to the Philippines and Hawaii to study exotic coral reefs and associated environmental issues. Coral reefs worldwide are currently subject to severe anthropogenic stress. Allows students to get in the water to see reefs firsthand, to explore the science and human technology relating to coral reefs, and meet individuals who are working to address environmental problems.
Prerequisites: Laboratory Science (D) course; Mathematics (M) course. Offered: Interim. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in biology and environmental studies.

GES311K • Forensics: The Science of Crime. 3 Credits.

An introduction to the roles that biology, chemistry, physics, and psychology play in criminal investigations. Discovery, identification, and comparison of physical evidence using various current techniques. Discussion of the processes and limitations of scientific knowledge.
Prerequisites: Laboratory Science (D) Course; Mathematics (M) course. Offered: Occasionally interim

GES312G • Disability and Society. 3 Credits.

Exploration of ideologies of disability including medical, moral, rehabilitative, and minority approaches. Identification of the social, economic, religious, and other barriers faced by people with disabilities. International perspectives on disability, as well as the concept of a “disability culture.” Experiential learning components included.
Prerequisites: [GES130; Contemporary Western Life and Thought (L) course; World Cultures (U) course] or [GES246; World Cultures (U) course]. Offered: Occasionally interim

GES314K • Stem Cells, Cloning, and Reproductive Technologies. 3 Credits.

Biotechnology, or the production of technology through the manipulation of biological systems, influences many areas of our lives. Applications of biotechnology such as drug production, human cloning, gene therapy, stem cells, reproductive technologies, and their impact on society are examined.
Prerequisites: Laboratory Science (D) course; Mathematics (M) course. Offered: Occasionally

GES315K • Brain Research Technology and Gender Differences. 3 Credits.

A review of gender differences revealed by recent brain mapping and scanning technology. MRI, fMRI, PET, and CAT scans reveal different aspects of brain structure and function. Several other neurologic, hormonal, and genetic technologies will also be reviewed as they relate to physiological and behavioral analysis.
Prerequisites: Laboratory Science (D) course; Mathematics (M) course. Offered: Occasionally interim

GES318KZ • Ecology in the Tropics: Natural History and Future Prospects. 3 Credits.

Travel in Kenya or Ecuador surveying the land, climate, plans, animals, homes, transportation, and industries, noting especially the impact of human presence. Ecuador includes the Amazon rainforest, Andean cloud forests, volcanic mountains, highlands, towns, cities, and the Galapagos Islands. Kenya includes Nairobi, African savanna, the Rift valley, and Masai Mara.
Prerequisites: Laboratory Science (D) course; Mathematics (M) course. Offered: Interim. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in biology and environmental studies.

GES321K • Human Genetics. 3 Credits.

Review of modern genetic history, principles, and technology as applied to humans. Includes discussion of classical Mendelian genetics, probability calculation, pedigree analysis, heritability analysis, and cytogenetics. Emphasis on more recent technologies of gene sequencing, genomics, gene therapy, genetic engineering, screening, early life (embryo) manipulations, and stem cell and cloning risks and benefits, among other issues surrounding human genetics.
Prerequisites: Laboratory Science (D) course; Mathematics (M) course. Offered: Occasionally

GES322K • Cancer: Science and Society. 3 Credits.

The biology of cancer; the technologies of cancer diagnosis and treatment; and some social, family, and personal impacts of this disease.
Prerequisites: Laboratory Science (D) course; Mathematics (M) course. Offered: Interim, spring

GES324K • Greening the Built Environment. 3 Credits.

A study and critique of the “built” environment: our homes, places of work and leisure, transportation systems, and food systems. Development of understanding and commitment for designing, living in, and working in our dwellings and communities in ways that demonstrate stewardship toward the creation.
Prerequisites: Laboratory Science (D) course; Mathematics (M) course. Offered: Occasionally

GES326K • Economic Botany. 3 Credits.

Review of the history, principles, and technology used to domesticate and improve food and beverage crop, lumber, cloth and rope fiber, medicinal, and herbal plants for human use. Emphasis on modern technologies to increase quality, shelf life, transportability, yield, pest resistance, growing season, and soil type tolerances. Includes technologies such as genetic engineering, hybridizing, and breeding that raise ethical issues about their long-term impact on humans, other species, and the environment.
Prerequisites: Laboratory Science (D) course; Mathematics (M) course. Offered: Interim.

GES328K • Nutrition: The Total Diet. 3 Credits.

Investigates the science of interactions between proper nutrition and weight management, and examines the appropriate ethical, and perhaps limited, use of technology as a means to reverse obesity. Topics include how hormonal imbalances and genetic alterations may result in failure to regulate appetite and metabolism.
Prerequisites: Laboratory Science (D) course; Mathematics (M) course. Offered: Occasionally

GES330K • History of Science in Europe. 3 Credits.

Study of scientists and their discoveries throughout history within the context of an experiential learning opportunity in Europe. Astronomy, biology, chemistry, engineering, mathematics, medicine, and physics are addressed. Evaluation of the effect on society of these disciplines (architecture, art, exploration, philosophy, politics, religion, etc.) will also be evaluated.
Prerequisites: Laboratory Science (D) course; Mathematics (M) course. Offered: Occasionally interim

GES331K • Science in the Fifth Dimension. 3 Credits.

An exploration of what science is, what it is not, and how it interacts with its “fifth dimension” (society) in art, politics, technology, culture, medicine, and other aspects of the nonscientific community.
Prerequisites: Laboratory Science (D) course; Mathematics (M) course. Offered: Fall, interim, spring

GES334K • Perspectives on Computing and Society. 3 Credits.

Impact of computing technology on social, economic, and value systems. Evolution of approaches to software development. Consideration of Christian ethics in the development and application of computing technology in various areas of human activity.
Prerequisites: Laboratory Science (D) course; Mathematics (M) course. Students may not receive credit for both GES334K and COS450. Offered: Occasionally

GES336GZ • Building Cross-Cultural and Global Leadership Competence in Hawai'i. 3 Credits.

Synthesizes theories of global competence and leadership, cultural diversity and cross-cultural competence, individualism and collectivism, critical thinking, and emotional intelligence with shalom and community. Examines and compares cultural groups in Hawai’i in social-historical context. Incorporates strategies for cross-cultural self-awareness and assessment with cultural and service learning experiences.
Prerequisites: [GES130; Contemporary Western Life and Thought (L) course; World Cultures (U) course] or [GES246; World Cultures (U) course]. Offered: Occasionally interim

GES338K • Great Controversies in Science and Technology. 3 Credits.

Overview of great scientific controversies past and present. Topics include: science versus religion, age of the earth, evolution and creation, global warming, and energy issues. Relationships between science and society with particular emphasis on discerning the difference among scientific results, popular consensus, and societal pressures.
Prerequisites: Laboratory Science (D) course; Mathematics (M) course. Offered: Interim

GES339K • Nano:Small Science, Big Ideas. 3 Credits.

Investigation of nanotechnology: the science of very small things and their strange, unexpected behavior. Learn why and how nanotechnology is being applied to solve some of our greatest challenges in energy, medicine, and healthcare. Societal and environmental impacts and ethical concerns from a Christian perspective are explored.
Prerequisites: Laboratory Science (D) course; Mathematics (M) course. Offered: Spring

GES340K • Healthcare Informatics: Merging Data, Science, Technology, and Healthcare. 3 Credits.

Investigates how technology supports meaningful use of data in the delivery of healthcare. Explores common disease processes tracked through healthcare information systems. Considers historical, ethical, and regulatory complexities of healthcare informatics as related to the role of consumer, healthcare administrator, insurer, researcher, and healthcare professional.
Prerequisites: Laboratory Science (D) course; Mathematics (M) course. Offered: Spring.

GES341Z • The House of God in the City of the World. 3 Credits.

An exploration of how the church is influenced, expressed, and experienced through social and cultural systems. Develops a level of intercultural competency necessary for understanding Christian communities different from one’s own and for hearing and speaking the gospel with cultural sensitivity.
Offered: Spring.

GES390K • Decision-Making and Medical Technology. 3 Credits.

Health technologies that may be both harmful and beneficial to human health are explored from the perspectives of ethical decision making, psychosocial dynamics, faith, and health policy formation. Topics include genetic testing, contraceptives, intensive treatment of newborns, assisted reproduction organ transplantation, enhancement technologies, aging, and end-of-life decisions.
Prerequisites: Laboratory Science (D) course; Mathematics (M) course. Offered: Occasionally

GES402P • Perspectives on Christian Marriage. 3 Credits.

An analysis of the central issues involved in making a wise decision concerning Christian marriage. Topics include: what the Bible says about marriage; whether or not marriage is for you; family of origin concerns; premarital factors associated with marital stability; and planning for success.
Prerequisites: Senior standing; [GES140; GES160; THE201; Comparative Systems (G) course] or [GES246; Comparative Systems (G) course]. Offered: Yearly, term varies

GES403P • Rage on the Stage: Cultivating Empathy and Imagination. 3 Credits.

Plays, films, and live productions as a springboard for reflection on relevant issues within our society. Discussion and contemplation of contemporary issues that may challenge Christians’ personal or collective convictions. Issues may include dysfunctional behavior, racism, environmental or social concerns, as well as current relevant issues selected by students.
Prerequisites: Senior standing; [GES140; GES160; THE201; Comparative Systems (G) course] or [GES246; Comparative Systems (G) course]. Offered: Occasionally

GES404P • Being Just in an Unjust World. 3 Credits.

Study and practice of moral decision making from psychological, philosophical, and Christian perspectives. Includes analysis of moral sensitivity, judgment, and action; and discussion and exercises designed to develop personal skills in these areas. Focal issues may include friendship, human rights, personal sexuality, power/authority, capital punishment, and current issues selected by students.
Prerequisites: Senior standing; [GES140; GES160; THE201; Comparative Systems (G) course] or [GES246; Comparative Systems (G) course]. Offered: Occasionally

GES405P • Ethical Relationships: Choosing the Good in Family and Community Life. 3 Credits.

Exploration of the ethics of relationships in the context of ethical theory and Christian virtues and norms. Topics include: marriage and divorce; gender; family caregiving; end of life; professional, work, and business relationships; race relations; economic justice; and consumption ethics.
Prerequisites: Senior standing; [GES140; GES160; THE201; Comparative Systems (G) course] or [GES246; Comparative Systems (G) course]. Offered: Occasionally

GES407P • Women's Lives, Women's Choices. 3 Credits.

Female experience during adolescence and adulthood, emphasizing female socialization and potential adult roles. Personal experiences, future life choices, and their consequences in light of the course content and Christian faith.
Prerequisites: Senior standing; [GES140; GES160; THE201; Comparative Systems (G) course] or [GES246; Comparative Systems (G) course]. Offered: Occasionally.

GES409P • Christian Leadership in a Secular World. 3 Credits.

Current issues facing Christian leaders today. The formulation of a personal biblical approach to leadership to enable one to impact society. Involves a variety of personal decisions that are designed to facilitate knowing oneself and understanding one’s own responses in various situations.
Prerequisites: Senior standing; [GES140; GES160; THE201; Comparative Systems (G) course] or [GES246; Comparative Systems (G) course]. Offered: Yearly, term varies

GES410P • Family Life Cycle. 3 Credits.

Study of the stages in the family life cycle, with attention to the factors that cause the family unit to separate during the cycle. Special emphasis on studying one’s own family of origin in light of both Scripture and society’s messages about what family should be. Opportunity to consider preparation for one’s own future family development.
Prerequisites: Senior standing; [GES140; GES160; THE201; Comparative Systems (G) course] or [GES246; Comparative Systems (G) course]. Offered: Yearly, term varies

GES412P • The Plot Thickens: Character Growth in Literature and Life. 3 Credits.

Readings and discussion of a number of novels and short stories, examining characters and their values, and responses in the face of complex life situations. Insights of narrative theologians will be used to think about building character as individuals and the role of the community in this process.
Prerequisites: Senior standing; [GES140; GES160; THE201; Comparative Systems (G) course] or [GES246; Comparative Systems (G) course]. Offered: Occasionally

GES413P • Women's Spiritual Experience. 3 Credits.

Exploration of diverse women’s spiritual experiences by reading spiritual autobiographies, biblical feminist writings, and research on gender and religion. Discussion of how gender influences religious institutions and Christian women’s faith. Students write their own spiritual autobiographies.
Prerequisites: Senior standing; [GES140; GES160; THE201; Comparative Systems (G) course] or [GES246; Comparative Systems (G) course]. Offered: Occasionally

GES414P • The Theology of J.R.R. Tolkien. 3 Credits.

An exploration of the theological issues raised by J.R.R. Tolkien’s “Middle Earth” writings. Theological themes such as evil, salvation, and power will be discussed, with an emphasis placed on choices the characters in the story make with regard to those themes. Attention will also be given to philosophical and literary assumptions/methodologies employed by the author.
Prerequisites: Senior standing; [GES140; GES160; THE201; Comparative Systems (G) course] or [GES246; Comparative Systems (G) course]. Offered: Occasionally

GES416P • Christian Perspectives of Global Peacemaking. 3 Credits.

The dynamics of global peacemaking are drawn from the Christian and biblical perspectives to understand the meaning of peacemaking and how absence of peace affects positive social change. This course, through a service-learning component, explores nonviolent alternatives in addressing social problems such as poverty, hunger, environmental depletion, etc.
Prerequisites: Senior standing; [GES160; THE201; Comparative Systems (G) course] or [GES246; Comparative Systems (G) course]. Offered: Occasionally.

GES418P • Christian Lives: Contemporary Spiritual Narratives. 3 Credits.

Reading, writing, and viewing contemporary spiritual narratives that explore the dimensions of one’s call to the Christian life in the contemporary world. Materials are selected for their spiritual, cultural, and literary value and include both traditional Christian authors (e.g., C.S. Lewis or Dietrich Bonhoeffer) and more recent writers (e.g., Anne Lamott or Lauren Winner).
Prerequisites: Senior standing; [GES160; THE201; Comparative Systems (G) course] or [GES246; Comparative Systems (G) course]. Offered: Occasionally

GES419P • Christian Perspectives on the 20th and 21st Centuries. 3 Credits.

An examination of significant events and trends of the past century in light of Christian values. Topics include the environment, military intervention, immigration, and the place of the federal government in national life. An understanding of diverse Christian responses to such issues in their historical context, and implications of these perspectives for the 21st century.
Prerequisites: Senior standing; [GES140; GES160; THE201; Comparative Systems (G) course] or [GES246; Comparative Systems (G) course]. Offered: Interim

GES420P • Bioethics. 3 Credits.

How technological advances have increased our abilities to conceive, sustain, and alter human lives. How to make morally responsible decisions that shape a just society. Moral issues such as healthcare practices, reproductive methods, allocation of healthcare resources, and biomedical research.
Prerequisites: Senior standing; [GES140; GES160; THE201; Comparative Systems (G) course] or [GES246; Comparative Systems (G) course]. Offered: Fall, spring

GES421P • Social Justice and Christian Responsibility. 3 Credits.

Attempts to understand selected themes of social justice in the United States and the global community. Examines viewpoints of different groups of Christians concerning issues such as the market economy and business, the positive and negative consequences of international trade, the debate about the fairness of public policies in the United States, and the global community. Explores possible actions of concerned and compassionate Christians in collaboration with others to address problems of social injustice.
Prerequisites: Senior standing; [GES140; GES160; THE201; Comparative Systems (G) course] or [GES246; Comparative Systems (G) course]. Offered: Occasionally

GES424P • Christian Perspectives on Creation and Evolution. 3 Credits.

An examination of the positions held by different scientists and Christians in regard to the origins of humans, of the world, and the interpretation of Genesis 1 and 2.
Prerequisites: Senior standing; [GES140; GES160; THE201; Comparative Systems (G) course] or [GES246; Comparative Systems (G) course]. Offered: Occasionally

GES425P • Censorship and Freedom of Expression. 3 Credits.

Censorship from the perspective of various disciplines, such as psychology, theology, literature, history, and art. Key issues and formulation of student’s own positions.
Prerequisites: Senior standing; [GES140; GES160; THE201; Comparative Systems (G) course] or [GES246; Comparative Systems (G) course]. Offered: Occasionally

GES426P • Family Interaction. 3 Credits.

An integration of a Christian worldview related to the contemporary family unit; approaches to conflict, power, stress, intimacy, and wholeness. The family system in light of contemporary trends and Christian choices. Communication patterns are examined and evaluated.
Prerequisites: Senior standing; [GES140; GES160; THE201; Comparative Systems (G) course] or [GES246; Comparative Systems (G) course]. Offered: Fall, spring

GES427P • Christian Responses to Genocide. 3 Credits.

Examination of the nature of genocide and religious terrorism with an emphasis on psychosocial influences in the actions of perpetrators, bystanders, and victims. Discussion of relevant religious and moral issues. Study includes selected major genocides of the 20th and 21st centuries.
Prerequisites: Senior standing; [GES140; GES160; THE201; Comparative Systems (G) course] or [GES246; Comparative Systems (G) course]. Offered: Interim, even # years

GES432P • Christian Responses to Postmodernism. 3 Credits.

Examination of postmodern theory and its effects on culture, with particular focus on various Christian responses to postmodernism. Attention will be paid to the historical development of postmodernism and the ethical and cultural impacts of postmodernism.
Prerequisites: Senior standing; [GES140; GES160; THE201; Comparative Systems (G) course] or [GES246; Comparative Systems (G) course]. Offered: Occasionally

GES433P • Biblical Spirituality: Experiencing God. 3 Credits.

A study of spirituality in a variety of biblical texts, both Old Testament and New Testament. Essential issues related to spirituality will be addressed including: What is spirituality? What are biblical teachings regarding prayer, worship, and spiritual disciplines? How do we interpret biblical texts as guiding paradigms for the contemporary practice of spirituality? .
Prerequisites: Senior standing; [GES140; GES160; THE201; Comparative Systems (G) course] or [GES246; Comparative Systems (G) course]. Offered: Occasionally

GES434P • The Celtic Tradition. 3 Credits.

Development of Celtic Christianity from pre-Christian roots in legends, druids, and dragons to its contemporary renaissance in art, literature, spirituality, and politics, with particular attention to the interplay of faith and the imagination; theology and literature; indigenous beliefs and Christian worship; language; culture; and politics.
Prerequisites: Senior standing; [GES140; GES160; THE201; Comparative Systems (G) course] or [GES246; Comparative Systems (G) course]. Offered: Occasionally interim

GES438P • Christian Music in Context. 3 Credits.

Consideration of the nature and function of Christian music in contemporary society, incorporating a study of its development and place in various historical and cultural contexts, as both an avenue for worship and a force for spiritual development.
Prerequisites: Senior standing; [GES140; GES160; THE201; Comparative Systems (G) course] or [GES246; Comparative Systems (G) course]. Offered: Occasionally

GES440P • Christian Nonviolence. 3 Credits.

What it means to be a Christian peacemaker in today’s world. The biblical mandate, the quest for Christian nonviolence in a historical and biographical context, and its implications for the development of conflict-resolution skills and contemporary public policy issues.
Prerequisites: Senior standing; [GES140; GES160; THE201; Comparative Systems (G) course] or [GES246; Comparative Systems (G) course]. Offered: Yearly, term varies

GES441PZ • Issues and Praxis in Christian Social Justice. 3 Credits.

Examines the theme of justice in the Bible. Explores related themes concerning the history of colonialism, human suffering, the church’s inattention to global injustice, spiritual development in relation to justice advocacy, and Christian social responsibility. Bridges theory and action in the setting of Cambodia with specific attention to human trafficking.
Prerequisites: Senior standing; [GES140; GES160; THE201; Comparative Systems (G) course] or [GES246; Comparative Systems (G) course]. Offered: Interim. Special Notes: All students desiring to take the course must complete an application process. Students who do not meet all of the above requirements may be admitted to the course on a case-by-case basis.

GES442P • Journey from Hell to Heaven. 3 Credits.

Explores the dynamics of spiritual growth in the context of contemporary social, political, and economic choices, through a reflective reading of Dante’s Divine Comedy in its entirety.
Prerequisites: Senior standing; [GES140; GES160; THE201; Comparative Systems (G) course] or [GES246; Comparative Systems (G) course]. Offered: Occasionally

GES444P • Christians and Conflict. 3 Credits.

Examination of how we are called as Christians to respond to interpersonal conflicts that continually exist in our lives. Emphasis on analyzing many different types of interpersonal conflicts, which include conflicts in friendships, marriages, parent/child relationships, workplaces, and churches. Analyzes conflict as it is portrayed in the media, including conflicts that are currently making headlines in the news.
Prerequisites: Senior standing; [GES140; GES160; THE201; Comparative Systems (G) course] or [GES246; Comparative Systems (G) course]. Offered: Fall, interim, spring

GES445P • Aging from a Cross-Cutural Perspective: Living in a Graying World. 3 Credits.

Aging processes and roles of the older person in our society and other cultures. Choices confronting students in their own aging, their relationship to aging parents and friends, and living and operating as Christians in a rapidly aging world.
Prerequisites: Senior standing; [GES140; GES160; THE201; Comparative Systems (G) course] or [GES246; Comparative Systems (G) course]. Offered: Occasionally

GES447PZ • Muslims and Middle Easterners: Past, Present, and Personal. 3 Credits.

An examination of the historical, political, religious, and cultural influences of the Arab peoples of today. Students begin to develop understanding of Arabs and Islam, and initiate communication with Arab and Muslim Americans in Minnesota.
Prerequisites: Senior standing; [GES140; GES160; THE201; Comparative Systems (G) course] or [GES246; Comparative Systems (G) course]. Offered: Occasionally

GES448P • Abusive Relationships and Christian Responsibility. 3 Credits.

Explores different types of intimate violence using research from the fields of communication, psychology, and sociology. Examines the history of domestic violence, the prevalence of intimate violence, the cycles of violence, and the existing secular and Christian response to violence. Consideration and evaluation of choices students may face in light of their Christian values, education, and personal experience. Development of personal strategies regarding perceptions and decisions for responsibility in responding to intimate violence.
Prerequisites: Senior standing; [GES140; GES160; THE201; Comparative Systems (G) course] or [GES246; Comparative Systems (G) course]. Offered: Interim.

GES449P • Chance or Design: Our Place in the Cosmos. 3 Credits.

Exploration of recent advances in Big Bang cosmology and planetary science with an emphasis on apparent fine-tuning to conditions suitable for human life. Discussion of the possibility of extraterrestrial life. Analysis of design arguments, with the goal of developing a biblically sound view of our relationship to nature and God.
Prerequisites: Senior standing; [GES140; GES160; THE201; Comparative Systems (G) course] or [GES246; Comparative Systems (G) course]. Offered: Spring, alternate years

GES450P • Reconciliation in a Racialized Society. 3 Credits.

Study of race, racism, and reconciliation in the United States. Starting from the biblical mandate to be righteous people, a focus on discerning past and present racism, understanding the need for racial justice and reconciliation, appreciating different cultures/ethnicities, and engaging students in the process of racial reconciliation.
Prerequisites: Senior standing; [GES140; GES160; THE201; Comparative Systems (G) course] or [GES246; Comparative Systems (G) course]. Offered: Interim

GES451P • Spirituality, Sexuality, and the Family. 3 Credits.

Three powerful forces in everyday life that vitally affect people both personally and collectively. Both past and contemporary influences and experiences that are likely to impact people as they seek to make their personal sexuality, spirituality, and family relationships consistent with Christian values.
Prerequisites: Senior standing; [GES140; GES160; THE201; Comparative Systems (G) course] or [GES246; Comparative Systems (G) course]. Offered: Fall, Spring

GES452P • Sports in Society. 3 Credits.

Study of sports as a social phenomenon. Presentation of some of the basic elements involved in the interaction of the active human being. Includes sports and culture, sports in education, social stratification, race, and group dynamics.
Prerequisites: Senior standing; [GES140; GES160; THE201; Comparative Systems (G) course] or [GES246; Comparative Systems (G) course]. Offered: Occasionally

GES453P • Ethics and Faith in the Workplace. 3 Credits.

Practical application of what it takes to function as a Christian in today’s workplace. Emphasis on the transition from college to a professional environment, focusing on personal maturity, workplace ethics, and lifelong Christian growth and service.
Prerequisites: Senior standing; [GES140; GES160; THE201; Comparative Systems (G) course] or [GES246; Comparative Systems (G) course]. Offered: Occasionally interim

GES455P • Covenant Relationships: Marriage, Friendship, and Beyond. 3 Credits.

An exploration of the relational dynamics of marriage, friendship, and Christian community within the context of the biblical concept of covenant relationship. Competing values within contemporary Western culture (e.g., individualism, hedonism) are explored and critiqued in light of the values associated with covenant community.
Prerequisites: Senior standing; [GES140; GES160; THE201; Comparative Systems (G) course] or [GES246; Comparative Systems (G) course]. Offered: Occasionally.

GES456P • What Good is Leisure? Living the Rest of Your Life. 3 Credits.

Examination of five ways that individuals and cultures have regarded time outside of work and family responsibilities. Study of time devoted to religious exercise, liberal arts education, social responsibilities, respite from labor, and recreation. Emphasis on exploring personal alternatives and experiential learning. Readings from philosophy, literature, anthropology, theology, and contemplative traditions.
Prerequisites: Senior standing; [GES140; GES160; THE201; Comparative Systems (G) course] or [GES246; Comparative Systems (G) course]. Offered: Spring

GES460P • Christian Commitment in a Secular Age: Liberalism and Conservatism. 3 Credits.

Despite the appeal of the cliché, “I don’t like labels; they simply put people in boxes,” many of our responses to culture—literary, political, and religious—are broadly “conservative” or “liberal.” Examines a range of issues and texts to determine the sources of liberalism and conservatism and their relation to biblical Christianity.
Prerequisites: Senior standing; [GES140; GES160; THE201; Comparative Systems (G) course] or [GES246; Comparative Systems (G) course]. Offered: Occasionally

GES461P • Anthropology of Tourism: Travel, Culture Change and Globalization. 3 Credits.

Uses the lens of anthropology to explore the nature, development, and impact of various forms of travel as well as their relationships with culture change and globalization. Approaches tourism not only as an important human activity and a modern industry, but also an area of creating new cultural hegemony, economic dependency, and identity crisis. Challenges students to evaluate benefits and costs of travel and tourism in light of Christian ethics and values.
Prerequisites: Senior standing; [GES140; GES160; THE201; Comparative Systems (G) course] or [GES246; Comparative Systems (G) course]. Offered: Fall, even # years

GES462P • The Arts, Meaning, and the Sacred. 3 Credits.

Explores how our complex “culture of representations” interacts with belief, meaning, and understanding the sacred. Emphasizes learning to read “contemplatively” as both personal and community action. Develops deep literacy for visual, media, and literary “texts,” including art, short story, TV advertising, creative nonfiction, and essays in aesthetics, philosophy, and theology.
Prerequisites: Senior standing; [GES140; GES160; THE201; Comparative Systems (G) course] or [GES246; Comparative Systems (G) course]. Offered: Occasionally

GES463P • Masculinity Past and Present. 3 Credits.

Study of how men have understood their identities as men in different historical contexts, including the present. While strength, individuality, and aggression may seem paramount, many societies have emphasized moral ideas like piety, cooperation, and self-control. Encourages critical evaluation of how gender helps construct personal identity.
Prerequisites: Senior standing; [GES140; GES160; THE201; Comparative Systems (G) course] or [GES246; Comparative Systems (G) course]. Offered: Spring