ANT200U • Introduction to Anthropology. 3 Credits.

Study of humankind, with an emphasis on human social and cultural systems. Focus on one non-Western culture in anthropological perspective. Study of the discipline, methods, and theories of anthropology.
Prerequisites: GES130 (may be taken concurrently) or GES244 (may be taken concurrently). Offered: Spring

ANT214U • Peoples and Cultures of Latin America. 3 Credits.

Comparative ethnography of Latin America. A holistic study of the social structures and cultures existing in Latin America today, with special emphasis on one cultural group.
Prerequisites: GES130 (may be taken concurrently) or GES244 (may be taken concurrently). Offered: Occasionally

ANT241UZ • Peoples and Cultures of Africa. 4 Credits.

Comparative ethnography of contemporary African societies and cultures with particular reference to the Sub-Saharan region. Examination of Africa’s geography and historical context. Topics include: politics and economies of the region, population and urbanization, social institutions, women’s issues, the family, and religion.
Prerequisites: GES130 (may be taken concurrently) or GES244 (may be taken concurrently). Offered: Fall

ANT242UZ • Peoples and Cultures of the United States. 3 Credits.

Comparative ethnography of contemporary United States cultures. A study of cultural origins and development of cultures in this complex, multicultural society with specific focus on Native American, immigrant minority, and dominant majority cultures of the United States. Special attention given to the nature of this pluralistic society and processes of community formation.
Prerequisites: GES130 (may be taken concurrently) or GES244 (may be taken concurrently). Offered: Fall

ANT301K • Human Origins and Diversity. 3 Credits.

Fossil evidence for human origins and development. Human adaptation to the environment, human genetics, heredity, and comparison of humans to other primates.
Prerequisites: Laboratory Science (D) course; Mathematics (M) course. Offered: Occasionally

ANT318GZ • The Urban Church. 3 Credits.

Taught on site in cities around the world (e.g., Amsterdam). Students research the challenges of urban communities and help local churches develop church-based responses to these challenges. Intensive interaction with urban communities and churches. Method for applied and experiential learning in response to social needs.
Prerequisites: [GES130; Contemporary Western Life and Thought (L) course; World Cultures (U) course] or [GES246; World Cultures (U) course]. Offered: Interim, odd # years

ANT371GZ • Christianity in Cross-Cultural Perspective. 4 Credits.

How Christian faith and practice are influenced by and expressed through social systems across the globe. Aspects of the social structure of selected Christian groups, both Western and non-Western, with emphasis on how these structures contribute to and result from Christian conversion, belief, values, and practice. Relational, cross-cultural intensive experience required to understand and apply learning.
Prerequisites: [GES130; Contemporary Western Life and Thought (L) course; World Cultures (U) course] or [GES246; World Cultures (U) course]. Offered: Spring

ARH105 • Survey of Western Art History from Caves to World War II. 4 Credits.

Survey of Western art history from prehistoric painting to World War II, examining major developments, artists, aesthetic concepts, stylistic practices, and use of materials within their respective social contexts.
Offered: Spring.

ARH201 • Religion and Art in Asia. 3 Credits.

Examination of artistic expressions of the major religious traditions of India, China, Japan, and Southeast Asia. Definitions of “religion” and “art” provide a guide for identifying and understanding Asian architecture, statuary, and paintings. Doctrinal and ritual elements of the major traditions are explained, and art that symbolizes and expresses these elements is analyzed.
Offered: Spring, even # years. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in religious studies.

ARH220 • Art History - Ancient Through Medieval. 3 Credits.

Western art from the prehistoric through the Gothic periods, dealing with those cultures that have been the basis of Western European art. Prehistoric, Egyptian, Ancient Near Eastern, Aegean, Greek, Roman, Early Christian, Romanesque, and Gothic art.
Offered: Fall, odd # years.

ARH221 • Art of the United States. 3 Credits.

Painting, sculpture, and architecture of the United States from colonial times to World War II, with particular reference to European influences and indigenous qualities.
Prerequisites: GES130 or GES244. Offered: Spring, even # years

ARH320 • Art History - Renaissance Through Rococo. 3 Credits.

Ideals and styles that mark the development of Western art from the early Renaissance in 14th century Italy, through subsequent movements in southern and northern European art, until the middle of the 18th century.
Offered: Spring, odd # years.

ARH321 • Art History - 19th and 20th Century Europe. 3 Credits.

Development of modern art, beginning with Neoclassicism and Romanticism, through Realism, Impressionism, and Post-Impressionism in the 19th century. In the 20th century, the major movements of Cubism and its offshoots, Expressionism, Dadaism, and Surrealism.
Offered: Fall, even # years.

ARH345 • Art History - World War II to Present. 3 Credits.

Multiple developments of art in the contemporary period, defined as post-World War II to the present. Painting, sculpture, happenings, performance, conceptual art, mixed media art, video, and photography in America and Europe are investigated. Attention is also given to changes in theoretical attitudes from Modernism through Postmodernism.
Offered: Fall.

ART100A • Two-Dimensional Visual Thinking. 3 Credits.

An exploration of two-dimensional visual expression and organization. The elements and principles of design are studied and applied through a variety of materials and processes. Introduction to critique and visual thinking.
Offered: Fall, spring.

ART101A • Three-Dimensional Visual Thinking. 3 Credits.

Diverse materials, methods, and media are explored and developed into three-dimensional form with expressive intent.
Offered: Fall, interim, spring.

ART103A • Drawing. 3 Credits.

Development of visual perception through observation, drawing, and a study of structural form and space relationships. Experiences in line, value, texture, basic perspective, and composition using various materials and techniques.
Offered: Fall, spring.

ART106A • Screen Printing. 3 Credits.

Screen printing as a means of creating hand-printed multi-color fine art prints. Methods include handmade and photo emulsion stencilling and studio art practice.
Offered: Occasionally interim.

ART107A • Clay Forms. 3 Credits.

A studio workshop for both art and non-art majors. Exploration of visual ideas in clay and of the creative process. Individual and group projects, along with discussions and critiques. Various hand-building techniques demonstrated. Emphasis placed on uniting color with form in utilitarian and non-utilitarian objects. Wheel throwing is not emphasized but is optional for those with previous experience.
Offered: Interim.

ART108A • Ceramics. 3 Credits.

The craft and creative possibility of working in clay. Includes the methods of throwing on the wheel, hand-building techniques, glazing procedures, and kiln loading.
Offered: Fall, spring.

ART109A • Seeing Photographically. 3 Credits.

Learn to see and think photographically. Study what makes a photograph distinct. Master elements of design and composition specific to photographic image-making, present and discuss photographs online, make photographs anywhere, and use a range of available cameras, whether DSLR or camera phone.
Offered: Summer.

ART120A • Photography in Spain. 3 Credits.

Technical and conceptual acquaintance with the medium of photography and its vocabulary within the realm of high art. Includes camera operation, black and white film developing, black and white print processing, and print finishing.
Offered: Spain Term, fall. Special Notes: Course taught in Spanish. Carries cross-credit in World Languages and Cultures.

ART203 • Drawing II. 3 Credits.

Advanced work in the drawing medium, with emphasis on individual conceptual development and material exploration.
Prerequisites: ART103A. Offered: Spring

ART206 • Sculpture. 4 Credits.

Basic sculptural concepts, processes, and materials within the studio experience. Modeling from life, casting, and carving are introduced.
Offered: Fall, spring.

ART208 • Ceramics II. 4 Credits.

Use of clay as a medium for art forms. Instruction includes glaze formulation and study of kiln and firing techniques.
Prerequisites: ART108A. Offered: Spring

ART210A • Painting. 4 Credits.

An introduction to the fundamentals of painting and personal painting practices. Students develop subject matter, as well as the ability to organize pictorial space and compositional ideas.
Prerequisites: ART100A or ART103A. Offered: Fall, spring

ART211 • Printmaking. 3 Credits.

Hand-printing processes with an emphasis on drawing and composition. Experience in such media as etching, woodcut, linocut, collagraphy, monotype and color printing.
Prerequisites: ART100A or ART103A. Offered: Fall and Spring

ART215 • Artist Books and Publications. 3 Credits.

Explores various book forms (hardcover, softcover, newspaper, magazine, and sculptural forms) as an artistic medium engaging sequence, narrative, time, text, and image. Engages the history of artists’ books as artworks. Students learn a number of forms for making one-of-a-kind and large edition books.
Prerequisites: ART100A or DES105. Offered: Fall, even # years

ART235 • Video Art. 4 Credits.

Produce and present original video art works, both individually and collaboratively. Investigate a variety of video works, including experimental film from the 1920s as well as contemporary video pieces from the last decade. Basic skills in video and audio software are developed through studio practice.
Prerequisites: ART100A, ART109A, ART250A, or consent of instructor. Offered: Fall

ART240 • Creative Practices. 3 Credits.

Exploration of creative processes that moves past introductory ways of generating visual ideas to developing self-sustaining and self-directed investigation and enriching techniques for the artist.
Prerequisites: Must be taken concurrently with another 200-level or above studio course. Offered: Spring

ART250A • Introduction to Photography. 3 Credits.

Photography as a means of aesthetic and conceptual ideas within the fine arts, rather than for family and vacation snapshots, through both digital and analog forms. Includes technical instruction in camera operation, black and white film developing, printing, and basic Adobe Photoshop. Introduction to photo history and contemporary theory.
Offered: Fall, spring.

ART303 • Drawing III. 4 Credits.

Advanced work in the drawing medium, with emphasis on individual conceptual development and material exploration.
Prerequisites: ART203. Offered: Spring

ART306 • Sculpture II. 4 Credits.

Self-directed studio research, with particular attention to individual conceptual development.
Prerequisites: ART206. Offered: Fall, spring

ART308 • Ceramics III. 4 Credits.

Use of clay as a medium for art forms. Instruction includes glaze formulation and study of kiln and firing techniques.
Prerequisites: ART208. Offered: Spring

ART310 • Painting II. 4 Credits.

A continued exploration of painting, including various material experiments and exposure to new processes. Emphasis on the development of visual vocabulary and understanding of contemporary issues in painting. Invention and investigation are stressed.
Prerequisites: ART210. Offered: Spring

ART311 • Printmaking II. 4 Credits.

Advanced work in selected media with emphasis on individual research and development.
Prerequisites: ART220 or ART230. Offered: Fall, spring

ART330 • Advanced Black & White Photography. 4 Credits.

Individual aesthetic and conceptual development within the photographic medium, advanced black and white printing skills, and investigation of photo history and critical theory (as it relates to photography).
Prerequisites: ART250A or consent of instructor. Offered: Spring

ART332 • Advanced Digital Photography. 4 Credits.

Individual aesthetic and conceptual development within the photographic medium, advanced skills in digital photography processes, and investigation of photo history and critical theory (as it relates to photography).
Prerequisites: ART250A. Offered: Spring

ART334 • Photo Manipulation. 3 Credits.

Introduction to use and manipulation of photography in contemporary art practice. Utilizing photographs for conceptual ends, examining process, materiality, and the truth value of photography. Advanced skills developed with the camera, scanners, Adobe Photoshop, and ink jet printers. Software used to alter, manipulate, and composite photographs.
Prerequisites: ART250A for BA and BFA majors. Offered: Interim

ART403 • Drawing IV. 4 Credits.

Advanced work in the drawing medium, with emphasis on individual conceptual development and material exploration.
Prerequisites: ART303. Offered: Spring

ART406 • Sculpture III. 4 Credits.

Self-directed studio research, with particular attention to individual conceptual development.
Prerequisites: ART306. Offered: Fall, spring

ART408 • Ceramics IV. 4 Credits.

Use of clay as a medium for art forms. Instruction includes glaze formulation and study of kiln and firing techniques.
Prerequisites: ART308. Offered: Spring

ART410 • Painting III. 4 Credits.

A continued exploration of painting, including various material experiments and exposure to new processes. Emphasis on the development of visual vocabulary and understanding of contemporary issues in painting. Invention and investigation are stressed.
Prerequisites: ART310. Offered: Spring

ART411 • Printmaking III. 4 Credits.

Advanced work in selected media with emphasis on individual research and development.
Prerequisites: ART311. Offered: Fall, spring

ART419 • Photography Portfolio. 4 Credits.

Individual aesthetic and conceptual development of personal vision into a professional portfolio, and investigation of photo history and critical theory (as it relates to individual student’s portfolio).
Prerequisites: ART330, ART332, ART334, or consent of instructor. Offered: Spring

ART481 • Internship in Art. 1-4 Credits.

Educational and practical experience in applying understanding and skill in an off-campus, professional setting. An internship can be arranged in advertising studios, agencies, printmaking studios, artists’ studios, and art museums. Supervised by an art faculty member.
Prerequisites: Seven studio art courses; major in art; consent of department. Offered: Fall or spring

ART496 • Senior Art & Design Exhibition. 0 Credit.

Installation and completion of Senior thesis work in an exhibit with other seniors. Activities include preparing work for the exhibit, installation, lighting, didactics, hosting an opening, participating in the Art Matrix, and deinstalling work.
Prerequisites: ART499 Offered: Spring.

ART498 • Professional Practices. 3 Credits.

Prepares students to continue their own studio practice after graduation and to enter into graduate school, exhibitions, grants, and residencies. Teaches students the skills for presenting their work in a professional and compelling manner within the forms and procedures expected from the art world.
Prerequisites: Major in art; consent of department. Offered: Spring

ART499 • Senior Seminar/Thesis Exhibition. 3 Credits.

Development of creative independence in a studio experience. Culminates in the senior exhibition program or portfolio.
Prerequisites: Major in art; consent of department. Offered: Fall

ASL101 • Introductory American Sign Language I. 4 Credits.

Designed for students who have no knowledge of American Sign Language (ASL) to allow them to function comfortably in a variety of communication situations. Focuses on development of visual readiness skills and expressive and receptive skills in basic ASL. Includes introduction to conversational vocabulary, fingerspelling, grammatical principles, and syntax. Information related to deaf culture is included.
Offered: Fall, spring.

ASL102S • Introductory American Sign Language II. 4 Credits.

Continuation of functional and practical understanding and communicative use of ASL. Further study of the history and culture of the deaf community through films, discussions, and readings.
Prerequisites: ASL101 or placement exam. Offered: Fall, spring

BIB101 • Introduction to the Bible. 3 Credits.

Traces the journey of God’s people from Abraham and Sarah through the New Testament church, highlighting the unifying self-disclosure of God in the various cultures and types of writing of the Old and New Testaments. A holistic approach is used to introduce students to both historical and thematic content as well as broad but basic exegetical principles.
Offered: Fall, interim, spring.

BIB205 • Introduction to Spiritual Formation. 3 Credits.

Examines key Old and New Testament texts undergirding Christian spirituality, differentiating it from other forms of spirituality. The study and practice of historic spiritual disciplines and readings of classic and contemporary works in Christian spirituality, including African, Asian, Hispanic, and European perspectives.
Prerequisites: BIB101 Offered: Spring, even # years.

BIB206 • Spiritual Formation Practicum I. 1 Credit.

Participation in spiritually-formative activities including spiritual formation groups, spiritual direction, mentorships, retreats, ministry and service opportunities. Requires 45 hours of supervised activities and meetings with supervisor. Taught in partnership with the Office of Campus Ministries.
Prerequisites: Sophomore standing Corequisites: BIB205. Offered: Fall, interim, spring.

BIB207 • Spiritual Formation Practicum II. 1 Credit.

Participation in spiritually-formative activities including spiritual formation groups, spiritual direction, mentorships, retreats, ministry and service opportunities. Requires 45 hours of supervised activities and meetings with supervisor. Taught in partnership with the Office of Campus Ministries.
Prerequisites: Sophomore standing Corequisites: BIB205. Offered: Fall, interim, spring.

BIB208 • Spiritual Formation Practicum III. 1 Credit.

Participation in spiritually-formative activities including spiritual formation groups, spiritual direction, mentorships, retreats, ministry and service opportunities. Requires 45 hours of supervised activities and meetings with supervisor. Taught in partnership with the Office of Campus Ministries.
Prerequisites: Sophomore standing Corequisites: BIB205. Offered: Fall, interim, spring.

BIB210 • History of Ancient Israel. 3 Credits.

Focus on the history of the coastlands along the southern half of the eastern Mediterranean from the Early Bronze through the Maccabean eras, with an emphasis on the rise and history of ancient Israel.
Prerequisites: BIB101 Offered: Fall or spring.

BIB212 • Reading the Hebrew Bible. 3 Credits.

Study of select foundational themes and difficult areas for Christians reading the Hebrew Bible today, with an introduction to a range of methods in interpretation. Topics discussed may include: creation, capital punishment, social justice, violence and holy war, and the status of women.
Prerequisites: BIB101 Offered: Fall or spring.

BIB220 • The Pentateuch. 3 Credits.

Mosaic books of the Old Testament, with particular interest in the Genesis account of world beginnings, the Patriarchs, the Exodus and founding of the nation of Israel, and the faith and religion of the Hebrews.
Prerequisites: BIB101 Offered: Occasionally.

BIB230Z • Israel Study Tour. 3 Credits.

Historical geography and onsite investigation of the Holy Land with emphasis on sites from the Early Bronze through Byzantine eras. Particular emphasis on sites that underlie the Hebrew Bible, the intertestamental period, and the New Testament.
Prerequisites: BIB101 Offered: Occasionally interim.

BIB236 • Archaeology of the Southern Levant. 3 Credits.

Objectives, history, methodology, and results of archaeology of the coastlands along the southern half of the eastern Mediterranean from the Early Bronze through Early Roman eras.
Prerequisites: BIB101. Offered: Occasionally

BIB240 • Topics in Biblical Studies. 3 Credits.

Study of a biblical area or topic. The specific subject is announced when the course is offered.
Prerequisites: BIB101 Offered: Occasionally.

BIB260 • The Life and Teachings of Jesus. 3 Credits.

Main events of the life of Jesus and the form and message of His teaching in the light of first century Jewish culture. Use of the Old Testament in the gospels, the structure of the gospels, and their literary genre.
Prerequisites: BIB101. Offered: Fall or spring

BIB264Z • Greece-Turkey Study Tour. 3 Credits.

Onsite investigation of the sites and regions that underlie the people, movements, and events of the Early Christian era. The area is examined in light of the historical, geographical, and rich cultural context of the classical Greek and Roman worlds.
Prerequisites: BIB101. Offered: Occasionally, Interim

BIB265 • The Life and Teachings of Paul. 3 Credits.

Life of Paul, his strategic role in the expansion of Christianity, and the contribution of his theology and thought as reflected in his writings.
Prerequisites: BIB101. Offered: Fall or spring

BIB301J • The Faith of Abraham in Genesis, Paul and James. 3 Credits.

The faith of Abraham as reflected in biblical and extra-canonical traditions, with emphasis on Genesis, Romans, Galatians, and the book of James. Attention to the theological and exegetical perspectives of the various documents, unity and diversity within the canon, and contemporary application.
Prerequisites: BIB101; GES160 or GES244; minimum sophomore standing. Offered:Occasionally

BIB302J • Biblical Law in Christian Belief and Practice. 3 Credits.

Biblical law as an expression of the character and will of God; the form, content, and use of law throughout Scripture; and the relationship of law and grace. Modern viewpoints on the abiding relevance of biblical law for individuals and societies.
Prerequisites: BIB101; GES160 or GES244; minimum sophomore standing. Offered:Occasionally

BIB304J • Messianic Concepts. 3 Credits.

Development of such terms as “Son of Man,” “Son of God,” and “Messiah” is traced from origins in Old Testament texts of poetry and prophecy to New Testament fulfillment in the Gospels and Epistles.
Prerequisites: BIB101; GES160 or GES244; minimum sophomore standing. Offered:Occasionally

BIB305J • Sleep, Surrender, and Sabbath. 3 Credits.

The theology and ethics of rest from a biblical perspective. Focus on key passages in Scripture regarding sleep, dreams, and Sabbath. Exploration of topics such as creation, the human condition, divine relationality, human dependency, prayer, and social responsibility. Interdisciplinary approach, utilizing historical records of Sabbath practices, scientific research, and sociological analyses.
Prerequisites: BIB101; GES160 or GES244; minimum sophomore standing. Offered:Occasionally

BIB306J • Covenant, Promise, and Fulfillment. 3 Credits.

Major covenants between God and humans in both the Old and New Testaments. Relationships between these covenants, especially regarding the theme of promise and fulfillment.
Prerequisites: BIB101; GES160 or GES244; minimum sophomore standing. Offered:Occasionally

BIB307J • Jerusalem: Earthly City and Spiritual Symbol. 3 Credits.

Jerusalem as the means of studying God’s plans for worldwide redemption. The city where much of biblical history took place and that is symbolic of God’s earthly and heavenly kingdoms: its geography, history, and relationship to the several covenants in the Bible.
Prerequisites: BIB101; GES160 or GES244; minimum sophomore standing. Offered:Occasionally

BIB308J • Biblical Theology of Reconciliation. 3 Credits.

The goal of reconciliation in personal and socio-political conflicts is examined in light of biblical texts relating to liberation from oppression, establishment of justice, practice of forgiveness, and promotion of peace.
Prerequisites: BIB101; GES160 or GES244; minimum sophomore standing. Offered:Occasionally

BIB309J • A Biblical Theology of Poverty. 3 Credits.

Responses to poverty in the Old Testament, intertestamental literature, and the New Testament in light of the socioeconomic setting of these records. Construction of a biblical perspective and implications for Christian communities in North America.
Prerequisites: BIB101; GES160 or GES244; minimum sophomore standing. Offered:Occasionally

BIB310J • Holiness in Biblical Perspective. 3 Credits.

Exegetical and theological foundations underlying the biblical notion of holiness in both the Old and New Testaments. Biblical texts in their historical-cultural context, with a view to uncovering biblical understandings of holiness and integrating them into a Christian worldview.
Prerequisites: BIB101; (THE201 and GES160)OR (GES244); minimum sophomore standing. Offered: Occasionally

BIB311J • Worship in Biblical Perspective. 3 Credits.

Exegetical and theological foundations of worship. Old Testament and New Testament patterns of worship and their relevance for the church today.
Prerequisites: BIB101; GES160 or GES244; minimum sophomore standing. Offered: Occasionally

BIB312J • Female and Male in Biblical Perspective. 3 Credits.

Significant Old and New Testament passages related to past and current discussions of gender, roles, and ministry in the church.
Prerequisites: BIB101; GES160 or GES244; minimum sophomore standing. Offered: Occasionally

BIB313J • A Biblical Theology of Justice. 3 Credits.

Justice, in the full biblical sense, is employed as an integrating focus for the task of God on earth of restoring humankind. Elements of continuity and discontinuity between the Old Testament and New Testament. Location of each major block of biblical data in historical, literary, and social context.
Prerequisites: BIB101; GES160 or GES244; minimum sophomore standing. Offered: Occasionally

BIB314J • The "Word" in Biblical Tradition. 3 Credits.

Use of the term “word” in its creative, redemptive, active, prophetic, and prescriptive significance in the Christian canon. Beginning with the concept of “word” in creation; through “The Word as Law” and “The Prophetic Word,” and ending with an emphasis on “The Incarnate Word” and the words of the cross, the preacher, and the sacraments.
Prerequisites: BIB101; GES160 or GES244; minimum sophomore standing. Offered: Occasionally

BIB315J • God, Evil, and Spiritual Warfare. 3 Credits.

Study of God’s ongoing battle with spiritual forces from Genesis to Revelation. Origin, power, activity, and end of Satan and evil angels are traced throughout Scripture. Discussion of implications of these concepts for the problem of evil, a theology of providence, and spiritual formation.
Prerequisites: BIB101; GES160 or GES244; minimum sophomore standing. Offered: Occasionally

BIB316J • Vocation and Calling: A Biblical Perspective. 3 Credits.

An investigation of the biblical understandings of vocation and calling in both Old and New Testaments. Examination of foundational issues such as definitions of ministry, personal and spiritual gifting, the role of the church in contemporary context, and calling and vocation as they relate to being Christ-followers.
Prerequisites: BIB101; GES160 or GES244; minimum sophomore standing. Offered: Occasionally

BIB317J • Family in Biblical Perspective. 3 Credits.

Biblical perspective of family developed through an examination of family in ancient biblical cultures and a study of family in the Old and New Testaments. A biblical perspective will be integrated with an exploration of the cultural and historical influences on our contemporary understanding of family.
Prerequisites: BIB101; GES160 or GES244; minimum sophomore standing. Offered: Occasionally

BIB319J • Eschatology: The Last Things in the Church's Scriptures. 3 Credits.

Examines what the Bible says about “the last things” in the Pentateuch, historical works, poetry, gospels, letters, and apocalypse. Includes careful exegesis of the Bible’s statements regarding the last things in order to learn how they functioned in their original setting, how they function in the canon of Scripture, and how they function in living out a Christian worldview today.
Prerequisites: BIB101; GES160 or GES244; minimum sophomore standing. Offered: Occasionally

BIB321 • Issues in Biblical Studies. 3 Credits.

Theoretical and practical introduction to academic study in biblical disciplines. Major theories that influence current study along with methods for research and investigation in these fields.
Prerequisites: 200-level course in biblical studies; THE201; Interpreting Biblical Themes (J) course. Offered: Fall

BIB326 • The Prophets of Israel. 3 Credits.

The basic meaning of prophecy and the function of the prophets in Israel; analysis of the context and message of the great Hebrew prophets. Inductive studies bring out theological truths and relate them to the New Testament as well as to the Christian life as experienced today.
Prerequisites: Interpreting Biblical Themes (J) course or a 200-level biblical studies course. Offered: Occasionally

BIB331G • Cultural World of the New Testament. 3 Credits.

Historical and cultural backgrounds of the New Testament in their Jewish, Greek, and Roman contexts.
Prerequisites: [GES130; GES160; Contemporary Western Life and Thought (L) course; World Cultures (U) course] or [GES244; World Cultures (U) course]. Offered: Occasionally

BIB334G • Cultural World of the Old Testament. 3 Credits.

Historical, cultural, and archaeological backgrounds of the Old Testament in their Ancient Near Eastern contexts.
Prerequisites: [GES130; GES160; Contemporary Western Life and Thought (L) course; World Cultures (U) course] or [GES244; World Cultures (U) course]. Offered: Occasionally

BIB336 • Poetic Books of the Old Testament. 3 Credits.

Doctrinal and devotional themes of Job, Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and Song of Songs. The literary structure of these books and of individual psalms, the nature of Hebrew poetry, and its use in the New Testament and the church.
Prerequisites: Interpreting Biblical Themes (J) course or a 200-level biblical studies course. Offered: Occasionally

BIB370 • Romans. 3 Credits.

A widely influential letter of Paul with emphasis on the themes of justification by faith, ethics (good works), and life in the Spirit. Discussion of the letter’s significance for original and contemporary readers.
Prerequisites: Interpreting Biblical Themes (J) course or a 200-level biblical studies course. Offered: Spring, odd # years

BIB375 • First Corinthians. 3 Credits.

Paul’s letter to the Corinthian church in its first century setting. Topics include sexuality, divorce, spiritual gifts, the Christian ministry, resurrection, and the contemporary application of these.
Prerequisites: Interpreting Biblical Themes (J) course or a 200-level biblical studies course. Offered: Spring, odd # years

BIB440 • Topics in Biblical Studies. 3 Credits.

Advanced course on a biblical area or topic. The specific subject is announced when the course is offered.
Prerequisites: Interpreting Biblical Themes (J) course or a 200-level biblical studies course. Offered: Occasionally

BIB499 • Seminar: Biblical Studies. 3 Credits.

A selected topic in biblical studies related to a course theme. A major research project is followed by an oral and written presentation of its results.
Prerequisites: Interpreting Biblical Themes (J) course; BIB321; major in biblical and theological studies. Offered: Spring

BIO100 • Principles of Biology. 3 Credits.

Basic principles of modern biology. Topics include the scientific method, biology of the cell, genetic principles, anatomy and physiology of humans, plant biology, and environmental biology.
Corequisites: Registration in BIO100D is required. Offered: Occasionally.

BIO100D • Principles of Biology Lab. 1 Credit.

Laboratory experience accompanying BIO100.
Corequisites: Registration in BIO100 is required. Offered: Occasionally.

BIO104 • Human Biology. 3 Credits.

Study of the biological aspects of the human species. Includes basic molecules of life, human cell biology, tissue types, anatomy and physiology of the 10 systems, human embryology and development, human genetics, nutrition, disease, and health, as well as human ecology and impact on the environment.
Corequisites: Registration in BIO104D is required. Offered: Fall, spring.

BIO104D • Human Biology Lab. 1 Credit.

Laboratory experience accompanying BIO104.
Corequisites: Registration in BIO104 is required. Offered: Fall, spring.

BIO105 • Medical Terminology. 2 Credits.

Study of medical terms. Students study material independently and take proctored examination to demonstrate knowledge of medical language.
Prerequisites: Permission of instructor. Offered: Fall, spring

BIO114D • Introduction to Biodiversity, Ecology, and Adaptation. 4 Credits.

An introduction to the diversity, interrelationships, and origins of living organisms. Focuses on three themes: an overview of kinds and diversity of organisms found in six kingdoms, the interaction of organisms with each other and their environment, and the change of organisms through time.
Offered: Occasionally.

BIO118 • General Biology. 3 Credits.

Biological principles governing life processes. Topics include biological molecules, cells, metabolism, genetics, reproduction, and development with primary attention to mammalian organisms, tissues, organs, and life systems with reference to comparative anatomy and physiology. Intended for nursing majors.
Corequisites: Registration in BIO118D is required. Offered: Fall.

BIO118D • General Biology Lab. 1 Credit.

Laboratory experience accompanying BIO118.
Corequisites: Registration in BIO118 is required. Offered: Fall.

BIO120 • Introduction to Molecular and Cellular Biology. 3 Credits.

An introduction to cellular and subcellular aspects of living organisms. Includes a study of basic chemistry, biological molecules, cells, enzymes, metabolism, classical genetics, and molecular genetics.
Prerequisites: One semester of chemistry, or corequisite: CHE208/208D. Corequisites: Registration in BIO121 is required. Offered: Fall, spring

BIO121 • Introduction to Molecular and Cellular Biology Lab. 1 Credit.

Laboratory experience accompanying BIO120.
Corequisites: Registration in BIO120 is required. Offered: Fall, spring.

BIO122 • Introduction to Organismic Biology. 3 Credits.

An introduction to how living things work. Focuses on two main themes: the correlation between structure and function, and the capacity of organisms to adjust their internal environment in response to short-term and long-term fluctuations in the external environment.
Corequisites: Registration in BIO122D is required. Offered: Fall, spring.

BIO122D • Introduction to Organismic Biology Lab. 1 Credit.

Laboratory experience accompanying BIO122.
Corequisites: Registration in BIO122 is required. Offered: Fall, spring.

BIO126 • Integrative Biology and Global Health. 3 Credits.

Cancer. Climate change. Infectious disease. These are some of the challenges before biologists; challenges that require knowledge and skills that are not confined to one sub-discipline to solve. Through real world, case-based problems encompassing cells to ecosystems, this course unpacks what it means to be a biologist today. Concepts include genetics and GMOs, evolution, population, community and ecosystem ecology and global change.
Prerequisites: Declared major or minor in Biology, Environmental Studies, Environmental Science, or Secondary Education Life Science. Corequisites: Registration in BIO127 is required. Offered: Fall, spring

BIO127 • Integrative Biology and Global Health Lab. 1 Credit.

Laboratory experience accompanying BIO126.
Corequisites: Registration in BIO126 is required. Offered: Fall, spring.

BIO130 • Introduction to Neuroscience. 3 Credits.

An introduction to the biological basis of behavior. Focuses on two main themes: the cellular, molecular, and genetic processes that form the foundation of nervous system function and the systems-level organization of the nervous system that forms the foundation of human and animal behavior.
Corequisites: Registration in BIO130D is required. Offered: spring. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in psychology.

BIO130D • Introduction to Neuroscience Lab. 1 Credit.

Laboratory experience accompanying BIO130.
Corequisites: Registration in BIO130 is required. Offered: Spring.

BIO132 • The Science of Birds. 3 Credits.

An overview of the Minnesota avifauna and bird biology. Bird identification is discussed and practiced in the field. Selected topics from bird biology (migration, flight, reproduction, behavior, food, and conservation) are presented through lectures, numerous slide shows, and videos. These topics provide an introduction to the prevailing themes in modern biology.
Corequisites: Registration in BIO132D is required. Offered: Occasionally spring.

BIO132D • The Science of Birds Lab. 1 Credit.

Laboratory experience accompanying BIO132.
Corequisites: Registration in BIO132 is required. Offered: Occasionally spring.

BIO214 • Human Anatomy. 3 Credits.

Detailed study of the anatomy and histology of the human body in relation to its functional systems. Laboratory includes human cadaver prosections.
Prerequisites: One lab science (D) course. Corequisites: Registration in BIO215 is required. Offered: Fall. Special Notes: Not open to students who have taken BIO224 /225 or BIO238/239 except by department consent.

BIO215 • Human Anatomy Lab. 1 Credit.

Laboratory experience accompanying BIO214.
Corequisites: Registration in BIO214 is required. Offered: Fall.

BIO216 • Human Physiology. 3 Credits.

Integration of basic principles of cell biology and mechanisms of physiology to the functions of the major organ systems of the human body; centered around the theme of homeostasis.
Prerequisites: BIO214/215. A course in chemistry is recommended. Corequisites: Registration in BIO217 is required. Offered: Spring. Special Notes: Not open to students who have taken BIO226/227 or BIO238/239 except by department consent.

BIO217 • Human Physiology Lab. 1 Credit.

Laboratory experience accompanying BIO216.
Corequisites: Registration in BIO216 is required. Offered: Spring.

BIO224 • Clinical Anatomy. 3 Credits.

Detailed study of the anatomy and histology of the human body in relation to its functional systems. Laboratory includes human cadaver prosections.
Prerequisites: BIO118/118D. Corequisites: Registration in BIO225 is required. Offered: Spring. Special Notes: Not open to students who have taken BIO214/215 or BIO238/239.

BIO225 • Clinical Anatomy Lab. 1 Credit.

Laboratory experience accompanying BIO224.
Corequisites: Registration in BIO224 is required. Offered: Spring.

BIO226 • Clinical Physiology. 3 Credits.

Integration of basic principles of cell biology and mechanisms of physiology to the functions of the major organ systems of the human body, centered around the theme of homeostasis.
Prerequisites: BIO224/225; CHE101/101D. Corequisites: Registration in BIO227 is required. Offered: Fall. Special Notes: Not open to students who have taken BIO216/217.

BIO227 • Clinical Physiology Lab. 1 Credit.

Laboratory experience accompanying BIO226.
Corequisites: Registration in BIO226 is required. Offered: Fall.

BIO230 • Clinical Microbiology. 3 Credits.

Microorganisms and viruses with respect to their structure, physiology, genetics, identification, control, host-parasite relationships, and exploitation by humans. Topics include pathogenic organisms and the events and products of vertebrate immune responses.
Prerequisites: BIO224/225; CHE101/101D. Corequisites: Registration in BIO231 is required. Offered: Fall. Special Notes: Not open to students who have taken BIO234/235.

BIO231 • Clinical Microbiology Lab. 1 Credit.

Laboratory experience accompanying BIO230.
Corequisites: Registration in BIO230 is required. Offered: Fall.

BIO234 • Microbiology. 3 Credits.

Microorganisms and viruses with respect to their structure, physiology, genetics, identification, control, host-parasite relationships, and exploitation by humans. Topics include pathogenic organisms and the events and products of vertebrate immune responses.
Prerequisites: BIO118/118D, BIO120/121; one course in chemistry. A second course in chemistry is recommended. Corequisites: Registration in BIO235 is required. Offered: Spring. Special Notes: Not open to students who have taken BIO230/231

BIO235 • Microbiology Lab. 1 Credit.

Laboratory experience accompanying BIO234.
Corequisites: Registration in BIO234 is required. Offered: Spring.

BIO238 • Human Anatomy and Physiology. 3 Credits.

Anatomy and physiology of the human body, with a major emphasis on the principle of homeostasis.
Prerequisites: BIO100/100D, BIO104/104D, BIO118/118D, or BIO120/121. Corequisites: Registration in BIO239 is required. Offered: Spring. Special Notes: One course in chemistry recommended. Not open to students who have taken BIO214/215, BIO216/217, BIO224/225, BIO226/227.

BIO239 • Human Anatomy and Physiology Lab. 1 Credit.

Laboratory experience accompanying BIO238.
Corequisites: Registration in BIO238 is required. Offered: Spring.

BIO244 • Pathophysiology and Pharmacology. 3 Credits.

An integrated exploration of disease processes and the drugs used to treat them. The functional and structural changes that accompany a particular injury, disease, or syndrome are correlated with the study of drugs and their actions on the body.
Prerequisites: BIO214/215, BIO216/217 (may be taken concurrently), two semesters of chemistry. Corequisites: Registration in BIO245 is required. Offered: Occasionally

BIO245 • Pathophysiology and Pharmacology Lab. 1 Credit.

Laboratory experience accompanying BIO244. Pathophysiology and pharmacology experiments and exercises employing in-vitro pharmacology, computer simulations, serological testing, and hematologic methods.
Corequisites: registration in BIO244 is required. Offered: Occasionally.

BIO248 • Clinical Pathophysiology and Pharmacology. 3 Credits.

An integrated exploration of disease processes and the drugs used to treat them. The functional and structural changes that accompany a particular injury, disease, or syndrome are correlated with the study of drugs and their actions on the body.
Prerequisites: Acceptance into the nursing program or consent of instructor. Corequisites: Registration in BIO249 is required. Offered: Spring. Special Notes: Not open to students who have taken BIO244/245.

BIO249 • Clinical Pathophysiology and Pharmacology Lab. 1 Credit.

Laboratory experience accompanying BIO248.
Corequisites: Registration in BIO248 is required. Offered: Spring.

BIO310K • Human Impacts on Coral Reefs. 4 Credits.

Travel to the Philippines and Hawaii to study exotic coral reefs and associated environmental issues. Coral reefs worldwide are subject to severe anthropogenic stress. Allows students to get in the water to see reefs firsthand, explore the science and human technology relating to coral reefs, and meet individuals who are working to address environmental problems.
Prerequisites: Laboratory Science (D) course; Mathematics (M) course. Offered: Interim. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in environmental studies and general studies.

BIO316 • Wildlife Ecology and Management. 3 Credits.

Analysis of terrestrial vertebrate populations, communities, and habitats. Exploration of how these analyses are applied to the manipulation, exploitation, protection, and restoration of animal populations and communities.
Prerequisites: Two of BIO122/122D, BIO126/127, ENS104/104D; junior or senior standing. Corequisites: Concurrent registration in ENS317 is required. Offered: Spring, even # years. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in environmental science.

BIO317 • Wildlife Ecology and Management Lab. 1 Credit.

Laboratory experience accompanying BIO316.
Corequisites: Registration in BIO316 is required. Offered: Spring, even # years.

BIO318KZ • Ecology in the Tropics: Natural History and Future Prospects. 4 Credits.

Travel in Kenya or Ecuador surveying the land, climate, plans, animals, homes, transportation, and industries, noting especially the impact of human presence. Ecuador includes the Amazon rainforest, Andean cloud forests, volcanic mountains, highlands, towns, cities, and the Galapagos Islands. Kenya includes Nairobi, African savanna, the Rift valley, and Masai Mara.
Prerequisites: Laboratory Science (D) course; Mathematics (M) course. Offered: Interim. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in environmental science and general studies.

BIO324 • Human Ecology. 3 Credits.

Interrelationships between humans and the natural environment. Overpopulation, resource use, and pollution studied from biological, social, and economic standpoints, and skill development in the critical examination of the impacts of humans and our technology on the natural world.
Prerequisites: One year of biology; one year of chemistry. Corequisites: Registration in BIO325 is required. Offered: Occasionally

BIO325 • Human Ecology Lab. 1 Credit.

Laboratory experience accompanying BIO324.
Corequisites: Registration in BIO324 is required. Offered: Occasionally.

BIO326 • Vertebrate Histology. 3 Credits.

Microscopic structure of cells, tissues, and organs in vertebrate animals, with special emphasis on the way structural units are integrated. At all times efforts are made to correlate structure with specific physiological functions.
Prerequisites: BIO120/121; BIO122/122D. Corequisites: Registration in BIO327 is required. Offered: Spring, even # years

BIO327 • Vertebrate Histology Lab. 1 Credit.

Laboratory experience accompanying BIO326.
Corequisites: Registration in BIO326 is required. Offered: Spring, odd # years.

BIO328 • Invertebrate Biology. 3 Credits.

A survey of invertebrate groups from protozoa to prochordates with emphasis on organizational, functional, and ecological significance. Special attention is given to the morphology, life histories, and physiology of invertebrates within the context of survival in specialized environments.
Prerequisites: BIO122/122D or BIO126/127. Corequisites: Registration in BIO329 is required. Offered: Spring, odd # years

BIO329 • Invertebrate Biology Lab. 1 Credit.

Laboratory experience accompanying BIO328.
Corequisites: Registration in BIO328 is required. Offered: Spring, odd # years.

BIO330 • Ecology. 3 Credits.

Structure and function of wild nature. Topics include interrelationships of organisms with their environments, factors that regulate such interrelationships, and various roles that humans play in modifying patterns and processes of nature at organism, community, and ecosystem levels.
Prerequisites: Two of BIO122/122D, BIO126/127, or ENS104/104D. Corequisites: Registration in BIO331 is required. Offered: Fall, odd # years

BIO331 • Ecology Lab. 1 Credit.

Laboratory experience accompanying BIO330. Experimental work in field and laboratory, examining current hypotheses in ecological systems.
Corequisites: Registration in BIO330 is required. Offered: Fall, odd # years.

BIO332 • Genetics. 3 Credits.

Principles that control inheritance, with examples chosen from plant and animal research, population genetics, cytogenetics, molecular genetics, and current work on human genetics.
Prerequisites: Two courses in chemistry; BIO100/100D or BIO120/121. Corequisites: Registration in BIO333 is required. Offered: Fall

BIO333 • Genetics Lab. 1 Credit.

Laboratory experience accompanying BIO332.
Corequisites: Registration in BIO332 is required. Offered: Fall.

BIO336 • Entomology and Parasitology. 3 Credits.

A comparative study of the major invertebrate groups from anatomical, physiological, and ecological perspectives with attention to insects and parasitic invertebrates.
Prerequisites: BIO122/122D; BIO126/127. Corequisites: Registration in BIO337 is required. Offered: Occasionally

BIO337 • Entomology and Parasitology Lab. 1 Credit.

Laboratory experience accompanying BIO336.
Corequisites: Registration in BIO336 is required. Offered: Occasionally.

BIO338 • Endocrinology. 3 Credits.

Processes by which hormones exert control over many aspects of reproduction, development, growth, metabolism, and behavior. Topics include the chemical nature of hormones, receptors and signaling pathways, morphology and histology of endocrine organs, regulation of hormone synthesis and secretion, and mechanism of action in target tissues.
Prerequisites: BIO120/121; BIO122/122D. One course in physiology is recommended. Corequisites: Registration in BIO339 is required. Offered: Fall, even # years

BIO339 • Endocrinology Lab. 1 Credit.

Laboratory experience accompanying BIO338. Work is largely experimental, using bioassay procedures.
Corequisites: Registration in BIO338 is required. Offered: Fall, even # years.

BIO342 • Aquatic Biology. 3 Credits.

Biological and physical aspects of natural, freshwater ecosystems, including fish and other aquatic animals, aquatic plants, algae, and their interrelationships with each other and the unique aqueous environment in which they live.
Prerequisites: BIO122/122D, BIO126/127, or ENS104/104D. Corequisites: Registration in BIO343 is required. Offered: Fall, even # years

BIO343 • Aquatic Biology Lab. 1 Credit.

Laboratory experience accompanying BIO342. Examines Lake Valentine and other aquatic ecosystems near campus.
Corequisites: Registration in BIO342 is required. Offered: Fall, even # years.

BIO346 • Animal Behavior. 3 Credits.

Behavior from primitive invertebrates to advanced mammals, highlighting trends in behavior systems. Natural setting studies in the ethology tradition, comparative psychology studies, and biosociological principles with their implications for human social systems.
Prerequisites: One course in biology or PSY100. Corequisites: Registration in BIO347 is required. Offered: Fall, even # years. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in psychology.

BIO347 • Animal Behavior Lab. 1 Credit.

Laboratory experience accompanying BIO346.
Corequisites: Registration in BIO346 is required. Offered: Fall, even # years.

BIO354 • Cell Biology. 3 Credits.

The molecular organization and function of cells and their organelles. Understand­ing how cell biology information is obtained experimentally.
Prerequisites: Two courses in biology, including BIO120/121; two courses in chemistry (organic recommended). Corequisites: Registration in BIO355 is required. Offered: Spring

BIO355 • Cell Biology Lab. 1 Credit.

Laboratory experience accompanying BIO354. Research projects utilizing a variety of modern cell biology techniques and equipment.
Corequisites: Registration in BIO354 is required. Offered: Spring.

BIO358 • Neurobiology. 3 Credits.

Nervous system of animals and humans. Includes comparative anatomy and physiology of humans with other vertebrates and invertebrates, as well as interactions of sensory, motor, and integrative mechanisms of nervous system control.
Prerequisites: BIO100/100D, BIO104/104D, BIO120/121. BIO122/122D recommended. Corequisites: Registration in BIO359 is required. Offered: Fall, even # years.

BIO359 • Neurobiology Lab. 1 Credit.

Laboratory experience accompanying BIO358.
Corequisites: Registration in BIO358 is required. Offered: Fall, even # years.

BIO362 • Developmental Biology. 3 Credits.

The basic question of developmental biology is “How does a single fertilized egg give rise to all the different cell, tissue, and organ types of the adult organism?” The developmental processes that give rise to these different cell, organ, and tissue types along with the mechanisms underlying those processes are studied at the cellular, genetic, molecular, and biochemical levels.
Prerequisites: BIO120/121 and one other biology course; two courses in chemistry. Corequisites: Registration in BIO363 is required. Offered: Spring, even # years.

BIO363 • Developmental Biology Lab. 1 Credit.

Laboratory experience accompanying BIO362. Includes surgical manipulation of living organisms to elucidate developmental principles.
Corequisites: Registration in BIO362 is required. Offered: Spring, even # years.

BIO368 • Structure and Development of Vertebrates. 3 Credits.

An integrated and systematic approach to descriptive embryology and comparative anatomy of vertebrate species.
Prerequisites: Two courses in biology, including BIO122/122D. Corequisites: Registration in BIO369 is required. Offered: Fall, odd # years

BIO369 • Structure and Development of Vertebrates Lab. 1 Credit.

Laboratory experience accompanying BIO368. Observational studies of live embryos, microscopic examination of representative vertebrate embryos, and dissection of representative vertebrate types.
Corequisites: Registration in BIO368 is required. Offered: Fall, odd # years.

BIO372 • Plant Taxonomy and Ecology. 3 Credits.

Identification and distribution of flowering plants, including field work, keying, and laboratory preservation. Biogeography and factors important in plant distribution.
Prerequisites: Two of BIO122/122D, BIO126/127, or ENS104/104D. Corequisites: Registration in BIO373 is required. Offered: Fall, odd # years

BIO373 • Plant Taxonomy and Ecology Lab. 1 Credit.

Laboratory experience accompanying BIO372.
Corequisites: Registration in BIO372 is required. Offered: Fall, odd # years.

BIO376 • Animal Physiology. 3 Credits.

Comparative physiology of animal nerves, muscles, hormones, circulation, respiration, excretion, digestion, and the way those systems function intact with processes of feeding, energetics, osmoregulation, metabolism, locomotion, biomechanics, and temperature regulation necessary for an organism’s survival.
Prerequisites: BIO120/121; BIO122/122D; BIO126/127; two course in chemistry. Corequisites: Registration in BIO377 is required. Offered: Spring, even # years

BIO377 • Animal Physiology Lab. 1 Credit.

Laboratory experience accompanying BIO376.
Corequisites: Registration in BIO376 is required. Offered: Spring even, # years.

BIO380 • Environmental Plant Biology. 3 Credits.

Introduction to the fundamentals of how plants grow, metabolize, and respond to their environment. Topics include the conversion of light energy into chemical energy through photosynthesis and carbon fixation; nitrogen assimilation; water and mineral uptake and transport; phloem transport; and plant growth regulators, seed physiology, and plant and environmental stress interactions.
Prerequisites: Two of BIO122/122D, BIO126/127, or ENS104/104D; one semester of chemistry. Corequisites: Registration in BIO383 is required. Offered: Spring, odd # years

BIO383 • Environmental Plant Biology Lab. 1 Credit.

Laboratory experience accompanying BIO380. Includes some outdoor and off-campus investigations.
Corequisites: Registration in BIO380 is required. Offered: Spring, odd # years.

BIO384 • Immunology. 3 Credits.

The basis of the immune system throughout the animal kingdom is the ability to recognize or discriminate “self” from “nonself.” Study includes the molecular and cellular mechanisms that allow organisms to recognize, control, and eliminate such “nonself” entities as bacterial pathogens, foreign tissue grafts, and even transformed (cancerous) cells.
Prerequisites: BIO120/121; BIO122/122D; two semesters of chemistry. BIO234/235, BIO332/333, or BIO354/355 is strongly recommended. Corequisites: Registration in BIO387 is required. Offered: Fall, odd # years

BIO387 • Immunology Lab. 1 Credit.

Laboratory experience accompanying BIO384.
Corequisites: Registration in BIO384 is required. Offered: Fall, odd # years.

BIO388 • Biochemistry I. 3 Credits.

Physical and chemical properties of living systems with an emphasis on macromolecular interaction, structure, and function. Structure, classification, purification, and function of nucleic acids, proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids, including membrane transport and enzymology.
Prerequisites: BIO120/121; CHE226/227. BIO354/355 recommended. Corequisites: Registration in BIO389 is required. Offered: Fall. Special Notes: Not open to students who have taken CHE304/305. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in chemistry.

BIO389 • Biochemistry I Lab. 1 Credit.

Laboratory experience accompanying BIO388. Techniques include spectroscopy, chromatography, centrifugation, electrophoresis, and enzyme kinetics.
Corequisites: Registration in BIO388 is required. Offered: Fall.

BIO396 • Molecular Biology. 3 Credits.

Modern advanced molecular genetic research. Topics covered include regulation of gene expression during development, molecular biology of cancer, animal virology, eukaryotic gene organization, and methods in gene manipulation.
Prerequisites: BIO332/333; one additional biology course; CHE224/225; CHE226/227. Corequisites: registration in BIO397 is required. Offered: Spring

BIO397 • Molecular Biology Lab. 1 Credit.

Laboratory experience accompanying BIO396. Consists of research projects utilizing recombinant DNA/genetic engineering techniques.
Corequisites: Registration in BIO396 is required. Offered: Spring.

BIO399 • Introduction to Research. 1 Credit.

An introduction to research methodology in the biological sciences, with experience in the use of biological literature and an examination of how to distinguish and evaluate different types of scientific writing and presentations. Experience in the development of a research proposal.
Prerequisites: Major in biology or related field; junior standing. Offered: Fall, spring. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in environmental studies.

BIO400 • Ultrastructure. 3 Credits.

Electron microscopy as a tool in the sciences with emphasis on its use in biological investigation. Students prepare a portfolio of micrographs on a variety of material. Demonstra­tions, discussions, seminars, field trips, and individual practice.
Prerequisites: BIO120/121. Corequisites: Registration in BIO401 is required. Offered: Occasionally

BIO401 • Ultrastructure Lab. 1 Credit.

Laboratory experience accompanying BIO400.
Corequisites: Registration in BIO400 is required. Offered: Occasionally.

BIO409 • Advanced Human Gross Anatomy. 4 Credits.

For the undergraduate pre-health professions student. A regional approach to the study of anatomy through the supervised and directed student dissection of human cadavers. Identification of detailed structures and understanding their significance to the body.
Prerequisites: BIO214/215, BIO224/225, or consent of instructor. Offered: Interim

BIO481 • Internship in Biology. 1-4 Credits.

A learning/practicing experience in which the student applies biological understanding and skills in an off-campus professional setting.
Prerequisites: Major or minor in biology; junior or senior standing. Offered: Fall, spring

BIO493 • Literature Review in Biology. 1 Credit.

Thorough review of the primary and secondary literature pertaining to a particular question, problem, or phenomenon in the biological sciences. Culminates in written report that is presented orally in BIO499.
Prerequisites: BIO399; senior standing; consent of instructor. Offered: Fall, spring

BIO495 • Biology Seminar. 1 Credit.

Readings and discussions of topics that relate biology to one’s Christian faith.
Prerequisites: BIO399; senior standing. Offered: Fall

BIO496 • Biology Research. 1 Credit.

Students collect original data through independent laboratory research or field research under the supervision of a faculty member.
Prerequisites: BIO399; consent of instructor. Offered: Fall, spring

BIO499 • Biology Symposium. 1 Credit.

The presentation of scientific research and literature. Culminates in departmental symposium in which students present their original research or literature review.
Prerequisites: BIO493 or BIO496. Offered: Fall, spring. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in environmental studies.

BUS100M • Business Calculus. 3 Credits.

A non-trigonometric-based introduction to the concepts of the derivative and the integral with a focus on applications in business and economics.
Prerequisites: At least two years of high school algebra. Offered: Fall, spring

BUS105 • Information Technology and Applications. 3 Credits.

A basic understanding of computer technology, information technology, and business applications software. Students gain a working knowledge of computerized spreadsheets, databases, presentation software, and webpage design.
Offered: Fall, spring.

BUS110 • Personal Finance. 3 Credits.

Management and planning of personal and family finances. Emphasis given to budgeting, investments, individual income tax, and insurance.
Offered: Occasionally.

BUS130 • Business Problem Solving. 3 Credits.

A foundation for understanding and solving business and economic problems. An introduction to business and economic concepts, terminology, and problems along with the mathematical skills needed to solve problems. Emphasis on understanding problems, solutions, and decision making, as well as beginning the development of critical-thinking skills needed for success in business and economics.
Offered: Fall, spring.

BUS200 • Individual Tax Preparation. 3 Credits.

A practical study of taxation through the eyes of the poor, elderly, and recent immigrants. Students gain an understanding of an urban community and barriers that keep residents from filing tax returns. Tax return preparation for the poor, elderly, and recent immigrants is studied.
Prerequisites: BUS210. Offered: Interim

BUS202Z • Introduction to International Business. 3 Credits.

An introduction to international business involving off-campus study to expose students to critical concepts and the day-to-day practice of global business. Students interact with a culture through a series of activities. The countries under study vary from year to year.
Offered: Interim.

BUS208 • Business Communication. 3 Credits.

Students apply clear, concise and captivating business writing tactics in designing audience centered business documents, using proven techniques in presentation and communication. Writing, presentation and team communication exercises are integrated into the course.
Prerequisites: GES160 or GES244. Offered: Fall, spring

BUS210 • Financial Accounting. 4 Credits.

Basic financial accounting concepts and their application to the recording and reporting of business events.
Prerequisites: BUS100M, BUS130, or MAT124M. Offered: Fall, spring

BUS220 • Principles of Marketing. 4 Credits.

Role of marketing in society and the economy. The business firm as a marketing system. Management of the firm’s marketing effort.
Prerequisites: BUS100M, BUS130, or MAT124M; ECO201 (may be taken concurrently). Offered: Fall, spring

BUS230 • Principles of Management. 4 Credits.

Fundamentals of managerial activities: planning, organizing, leading, and controlling organizational activity.
Prerequisites: BUS100M or BUS130 or MAT124M. Offered: Fall, spring

BUS231 • Human Resource Management. 3 Credits.

Role of human resource management within organizations. Overview of human resource planning, job analysis, staffing and selection, training, development, compensation and benefits, and employee relations. Understanding how employment and discrimination law affects the workplace.
Prerequisites: BUS230 or COM248 (If a non-business/economics department student). Offered: Fall, spring

BUS232 • Innovation and Entrepreneurship. 3 Credits.

Practical problems associated with starting and operating a small business, including feasibility analysis, innovation, entrepreneurship, legal and financial aspects, accounting, marketing, and personnel management.
Prerequisites: BUS220; BUS230. Offered: Spring

BUS300 • Topics in Business and Administration. 3 Credits.

Special topics in business, particularly as they relate to current issues and contemporary develop­ments. Specific topics and prerequisites announced in advance of registration.
Prerequisites: Related courses as specified. Offered: Occasionally

BUS306 • Public Administration. 3 Credits.

How public policy is put into effect through the administrative agencies of government, the management problems of such agencies, and their relations with the public.
Prerequisites: POS100 recommended. Offered: Spring. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in political science.

BUS307 • Psychology of Investing. 3 Credits.

The study of the psychology of investing by utilizing behavioral finance theory: the concepts surrounding socially responsible investing. One week of the course provides a hands-on learning experience at a Twin Cities investment banking firm developing and applying investment analysis skills.
Prerequisites: BUS390 or consent of instructor. Offered: Interim, occasionally

BUS309 • Brand Management. 3 Credits.

Equips students with theoretical and practical knowledge necessary for a successful and efficient management of brands and the creation of strategies that build and preserve brand equity. Introduces the use of qualitative and eqantitative mentods in evaluating brand equity, brand strategy at different stages of the product life cycle, development of brand positioning, managing total brand experience and brand relevancy.
Prerequisites: BUS220. Offered: Fall, Spring

BUS310 • Intermediate Accounting I. 4 Credits.

Theories of accounting, accounting practice related to current asset measurement, and reporting. Analysis and evaluation of the measurement and reporting on noncurrent assets and current liabilities.
Prerequisites: BUS210. Offered: Fall

BUS311 • Intermediate Accounting II. 4 Credits.

Current and alternative accounting theories relating to long-term liabilities, stockholders’ equity, special income determination problems, and other accounting topics of current interest.
Prerequisites: BUS310. Offered: Spring

BUS312Z • Federal Income Taxes. 3 Credits.

Current federal income tax law as it pertains to individuals, corporations, and partnerships. Includes the concept of taxable income and covers tax planning and tax determination within the provisions of the law.
Prerequisites: BUS200. Offered: Spring

BUS313 • Strategic Managerial Accounting. 3 Credits.

Compilation and utilization of internal accounting information for managerial decision making.
Prerequisites: BUS210. Offered: Occasionally fall, spring

BUS315 • Sales and Sales Management. 3 Credits.

Emphasizes the concepts and practices of selling and sales management. Provides a guide for preparing sales presentations, one-on-one selling techniques, persuasive communication, oral and verbal presentation skills useful for one-to-one presentations, and the unique concepts of managing a sales team.
Prerequisites: BUS220. Offered: Occasionally

BUS317 • Business Analytics. 4 Credits.

Applies descriptive, predictive, and prescriptive analytics of data and facts to decision making in business. Covers techniques of advanced data visualization, multiple regression analysis, time series forecasting, cluster analysis, association rules and machine learning and optimization. Uses a variety of business analytics software.
Prerequisites: Junior Standing; MAT207M or MAT330. Offered: Spring

BUS318G • Global Marketing. 3 Credits.

Study of marketing concepts and decision-making processes relative to individuals and firms engaged in the global marketplace. An examination of key strategies of global marketing and mission-critical variables including cultural distinctives, role of language and values, politics and laws, pricing norms, product values, and promotional environment.
Prerequisites: [GES130; GES160; Contemporary Western Life and Thought (L) course; World Cultures (U) course] or [GES244; World Cultures (U) course]; BUS220. One business course recommended. Offered: Fall, interim

BUS319 • Advertising and Promotion. 3 Credits.

Principles and techniques of advertising, sales promotion, and public relations. Considers customer motivation, ad copy, physical layout of ads and promotional pieces, media selection, advertising budgets, and coordination of advertising and sales promotion campaigns.
Prerequisites: BUS220. Offered: Fall, spring

BUS321 • Marketing Research. 3 Credits.

Marketing research methods, including design, sampling, data collection, and report writing. A research design project is an integral part of the course.
Prerequisites: BUS220; MAT207M. Offered: Fall, spring

BUS324 • Consumer Behavior. 3 Credits.

A systematic examination of the behavioral, economic, cultural, and systemic factors that influence the behavior of the consumer. Students read relevant research in consumer behavior and design and complete a series of projects exploring the major course topics.
Prerequisites: BUS220. Offered: Fall, spring

BUS327 • Marketing and Management in Spain. 3 Credits.

Theoretical and practical concepts of marketing and management in the semi-globalized world. Understand the significant challenges globalization presents to management and marketing, specifically in the context of Spain. Business terminology and reality in a Spanish business environment.
Prerequisites: SPA202. Offered: Spain Term, fall. Special Notes: Carries cross-listing in World Languages and Cultures. This class is taught and assignments are completed in Spanish.

BUS330 • Compensation Theory and Practice. 3 Credits.

Compensation and reward practices in organizations’ wage and salary administration. Theories of design and implementation of pay programs using job evaluation, salary surveys, job and skill-based pay, incentive pay, and other compensation systems.
Prerequisites: BUS231. Offered: Fall

BUS331 • Staffing, Training and Development. 3 Credits.

Theories and strategies for maximizing the potential of an organization's workforce. Explores methods for recruiting and selecting employees, orienting them to an organization, using training to properly equip them for their positions, and facilitating career development. Hands-on approach to designing and analyzing surveys, selection tests, and needs assessments.
Prerequisites: BUS231. Offered: Spring

BUS333 • Entrepreneurship Strategies and Tools. 3 Credits.

Strategic and tactical tools associated with starting and operating a small or entrepreneurial business. Students develop an understanding of how to move from the development of a business plan to actually financing and running a small business.
Prerequisites: BUS210; BUS232; ECO201. Offered: Fall

BUS334 • Principles of Project Management. 3 Credits.

Explanation of the theory and practice of effective project management, including project planning, risk analysis, execution/implementation, and control. Explores project management styles, critical success factors, organizational support systems that enhance projects, project authority and politics, and ethics in project execution. Uses project management software to develop and track project plans for class case studies and project simulations.
Prerequisites: BUS230 or COM248 (if a non-business/economics department student). Offered: Spring

BUS335 • Organizational Behavior. 3 Credits.

Factors that influence the effectiveness of organizations. Topics include the role of the individual (motivation, personality, learning, work-related attitudes), the group (teamwork, conflict and cooperation, communication), and the organization (organizational design and structure, culture, change processes) in organizational performance.
Prerequisites: BUS230. Offered: Spring

BUS342GZ • International Market Issues. 3 Credits.

Intensive study of economics and marketing in an international context. Students study the dynamics of the economy and markets through site visits, thereby developing cross-cultural competencies for the global marketplace.
Prerequisites: [GES130; Contemporary Western Life and Thought (L) course; World Cultures (U) course] or [GES246; World Cultures (U) course]; consent of instructor. Offered: Occasionally interim

BUS344 • Managerial Finance. 4 Credits.

Principles of financial management, including financial analysis, capital structures, working capital management, and investment decisions.
Prerequisites: BUS210. Offered: Fall, spring

BUS352 • Financial Valuation. 3 Credits.

Builds on principles of finance through the use of case studies and Excel modeling to identify, quantify, and manage business risks. Includes developing and utilizing intermediate-level financial analysis skills, critical-thinking objectives, and demonstration of an ability to synthesize material into a defined model of financial valuation.
Prerequisites: BUS344. Offered: Fall, spring

BUS361 • Business Law. 3 Credits.

An introduction to the legal aspects and general structure of business dealings. Topics include an overview of the American legal system, general contract law, pertinent parts of the Uniform Commercial Code, and various forms of business organizations. Some aspects of employment and real estate law are also covered.
Prerequisites: BUS230 and one other 200-level business course. Offered: Fall, spring

BUS370G • International Business. 3 Credits.

International business as a bridge between diverse social systems. A panorama of the most important activities in international business and a framework for thinking about them from the perspective of the company manager. Prerequisites: .
Prerequisites: [GES130; GES160; Contemporary Western Life and Thought (L) course; World Cultures (U) course] or [GES244; World Cultures (U) course].One business course recommended. Offered: Fall, spring

BUS371G • International Business-Europe. 4 Credits.

International business as a bridge between diverse social systems. A panorama of the most important activities in international business and a framework for thinking about them from the perspective of the company manager.
Prerequisites: [GES130; GES160; Contemporary Western Life and Thought (L) course; World Cultures (U) course] or [GES244; World Cultures (U) course]; enrollment in the Europe Term. One business course recommended. Offered: Occasionally

BUS390 • Investments. 4 Credits.

Characteristics and interrelationships of investments, the operation and regulation of the markets, analysis of risk and return, valuation of speculative assets, portfolio planning, and timing and trading strategies.
Prerequisites: BUS344. Offered: Fall, spring

BUS410 • Advanced Accounting. 3 Credits.

Principles and problems relating to partnerships, international accounting, consolidated financial statements, corporate mergers, and governmental accounting.
Prerequisites: BUS311; all business core courses (except BUS481). Offered: Fall

BUS414 • Auditing Principles and Procedures. 4 Credits.

Auditing objectives, standards, and procedures employed in the examination of business enterprises and verification of their financial statements. Includes an evaluation of internal control, preparation of work papers, report writing, professional ethics, and current trends.
Prerequisites: BUS311; all business core courses (except BUS481); senior standing. Offered: Spring

BUS417 • Business Analysis and Analytics Seminar. 3 Credits.

Capstone courses in Business Analysis and Analytics emphasis. Integration of theories and practices learned in other courses through casework and practical exercises focused on equipping students to enter the Business Analysis, Business Anaylitics and Business Consulting market. Examines ethical questions that influence decision making.
Prerequisites: BUS317; BUS334; BUS430; all business core courses (except BUS481). Offered: Spring

BUS420 • Marketing Seminar. 3 Credits.

Capstone course in the marketing emphasis. Main course elements include case study analysis where students integrate prior course knowledge with relevant brand examples. Students utilize critical and ethical analysis of marketing practices and develop marketing strategies and plans with a real client.
Prerequisites: Three of the following: BUS315, BUS318G, BUS319, BUS321, or BUS324; all business core courses (except BUS481); senior standing. Offered: Fall, spring

BUS430 • Strategic Management. 3 Credits.

Strategy and policy formulation and implementation from the general manager’s perspective. Includes written and oral analyses of comprehensive cases involving multifunctional applications.
Prerequisites: All Business Core courses (except BUS481). Offered: Fall

BUS440 • Capital Markets. 3 Credits.

Comprehensive overview of the capital markets with an emphasis on major financial institutions and international financial centers. Evaluation of managing risk within the context of the capital markets in both a domestic and a global economy.
Prerequisites: All business core courses (except BUS481); BUS390 or consent of instructor. Offered: Fall, spring

BUS455 • International Business Seminar. 3 Credits.

Capstone course in the International Business emphasis. Integration of theories and practices relating to international business systems. Case studies and practical exercises focused on equipping students for work within international markets. Examines ethical issues when doing business internationally.
Prerequisites: All business core courses (except BUS481); Senior standing; ECO305, BUS318G, and BUS430. Offered: Spring

BUS470 • Finance Seminar. 3 Credits.

Capstone course in the finance emphasis. Systematic examination of financial, economic, cultural, ethical, and systemic factors that influence financial decision making. Through a case study approach, students integrate the theories and practices learned in other finance courses. Use of Excel to complete detailed analysis.
Prerequisites: All business core courses (except BUS481); BUS390 (may be taken concurrently). Offered: Fall, spring

BUS475 • Innovation and Entrepreneurship Seminar. 3 Credits.

Development of an individualized and intensive personal business plan as major course project. Plan is submitted to a panel of entrepreneurs to evaluate as part of a competition. Seniors are evaluated on their written plan, their presentation, and the overall viability of the proposed new venture. Includes ethical discussions, entrepreneurial guest speakers, and case analyses of entrepreneurial ventures.
Prerequisites: All business core courses (except BUS481); BUS333. Offered: Spring

BUS481 • Internship in Business. 3-4 Credits.

A learning/practicing experience to apply understanding and skills in an off-campus professional setting. Includes participation in an online course with weekly assignments.
Prerequisites: Major or minor within the business and economics department; completion of 20 credits of BUS/ECO courses; consent of department. Grade exceptions: Graded on an S/U basis. Offered: Fall, spring, summer

BUS493 • Seminar - Human Resource Management. 3 Credits.

Capstone course in human resource management emphasis. Integration of theories and practices learned in other courses through casework and practical exercises focused on equipping students to enter the HR labor market. Examines ethical questions that influence HR decision making.
Prerequisites: All business core courses (except BUS481); Senior standing in the HR emphasis. Offered: Spring

CHE101 • Introduction to Chemistry. 3 Credits.

Overview of atoms–their composition, their ability to form bonds, and their ability to interact as molecules. Designed for nursing and allied health fields.
Corequisites: Registration in CHE101D is required. Offered: Fall, spring.

CHE101D • Introduction to Chemistry Lab. 1 Credit.

Laboratory experience accompanying CHE101.
Corequisites: Registration in CHE101 is required. Offered: Fall, spring.

CHE106 • Introduction to Nutrition. 3 Credits.

Overview of macromolecules and their function in heredity and metabolism. An introduction to human nutrition and health. Designed for nursing and allied health fields.
Prerequisites: CHE101/101D. Offered: Spring Corequisites: Registration in CHE106D is required.

CHE106D • Introduction to Nutrition Lab. 1 Credit.

Laboratory experience accompanying CHE106.
Prerequisites: CHE101/101D. Offered: Spring Corequisites: Registration in CHE106 is required.

CHE107 • Modern Alchemy: Chemistry for Non-Scientists. 3 Credits.

The chemical world including, for example, food, agriculture, household chemicals, plastics, drugs, environmental concerns, and energy production. An overview of chemical concepts, but emphasis is on applications of chemistry and their implications for society.
Corequisites: Registration in CHE107D is required. Offered: Interim.

CHE107D • Modern Alchemy: Chemistry for Non-Scientists Lab. 1 Credit.

Laboratory experience accompanying CHE107.
Corequisites: Registration with CHE107 is required. Offered: Interim.

CHE113 • General Chemistry I. 3 Credits.

Chemical properties and principles, structure and reactivity, stoichiometry, thermodynamics, atomic theory, states of matter, and behavior of solutions. Laboratory includes application of these principles in exploring chemical properties and reactivity, and computer data collection and modeling.
Prerequisites: Two years of high school math; high school chemistry or consent of instructor. Offered: Fall Corequisites: Registration in CHE113D is required.

CHE113D • General Chemistry I Lab. 1 Credit.

Laboratory experience accompanying CHE113.
Corequisites: Registration in CHE113 is required. Offered: Fall.

CHE200 • Laboratory Safety and Chemical Hygiene. 1 Credit.

High standards of safety and chemical hygiene make the science laboratory a safe, comfortable, interesting place to work. This course reviews the standards and federal/state guidelines pertaining to safety and hygiene in the laboratory.
Prerequisites: One year of high school chemistry; one semester of college-level science. Offered: Fall

CHE208 • Accelerated General Chemistry. 3 Credits.

Chemical properties and principles, stoichiometry, structure, reactivity, atomic theory, states of matter, solutions, thermodynamics, kinetics, equilibria, acids and bases, electrochemistry, descriptive inorganic chemistry, and nuclear chemistry. Intended for science and engineering students who have a strong math background.
Prerequisites: MAT124M (may be taken concurrently). Corequisites: Registration in CHE208D is required. Offered: Fall. Special Notes: Meets the same requirements of CHE113/113D and CHE214/215.

CHE208D • Accelerated General Chemistry Lab. 1 Credit.

Laboratory experience accompanying CHE208.
Corequisites: Registration in CHE208 is required. Offered: Fall.

CHE214 • General Chemistry II. 3 Credits.

Study of chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, solution equilibria, acids and bases, electrochemistry, descriptive inorganic chemistry, and nuclear chemistry.
Prerequisites: CHE113/113D. Offered: Spring Corequisites: Registration in CHE215 is required.

CHE215 • General Chemistry II Lab. 1 Credit.

Laboratory experience accompanying CHE214.
Corequisites: Registration with CHE214 is required. Offered: Spring.

CHE224 • Organic Chemistry I. 3 Credits.

Structure, classification, and function of organic compounds; bonding theory, stereochemistry, organic reaction mechanisms, energy relations, and spectroscopy.
Prerequisites: CHE214/215 or CHE208/208D. Offered: Fall Corequisites: Registration in CHE225 is required.

CHE225 • Organic Chemistry I Lab. 1 Credit.

Laboratory experience accompanying CHE224. Includes introduction to techniques of measurement, analysis, separation, synthesis, and purification of organic compounds.
Corequisites: Registration with CHE224 is required. Offered: Fall.

CHE226 • Organic Chemistry II. 3 Credits.

Mechanism and classification of organic reactions, particularly carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions involving carbonyl compounds. Mechanistic organic chemistry applied to polymers and biochemical pathways.
Prerequisites: CHE224/225. Offered: Spring Corequisites: Registration in CHE227 is required.

CHE227 • Organic Chemistry II Lab. 1 Credit.

Laboratory experience accompanying CHE226. Laboratory includes synthesis, separation, purification, and identification of organic compounds. Offered:Spring.
Corequisites: Registration in CHE226 is required.

CHE304 • Essentials of Biochemistry. 3 Credits.

A survey of the structure, function, interactions, and chemical properties of the four major macromolecules: proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and carbohydrates. Examination of primary metabolic pathways, bioenergetics, regulation, and homeostasis.
Prerequisites: CHE224/CHE225; BIO120/BIO121. Not open to students who have taken BIO388/BIO389 or CHE388/CHE389. Corequisites: CHE305. Offered: Fall

CHE305 • Essentials of Biochemistry Lab. 1 Credit.

Laboratory experience accompanying CHE304.
Corequisites: Registration in CHE304 is required. Offered: Fall.

CHE306 • Advanced Organic Chemistry. 3 Credits.

Bonding, kinetics, mechanisms of reactions, stereochemistry, and structure determination of organic compounds.
Prerequisites: CHE226/227; CHE344/345. Corequisites: CHE307. Offered: Occasionally

CHE307 • Advanced Organic Chemistry Lab. 1 Credit.

Laboratory experience accompanying CHE306.
Corequisites: Registration in CHE306 is required. Offered: Occasionally.

CHE312 • Quantitative Analysis. 3 Credits.

Principles and practice of modern quantitative analysis. Acid-base and ionic equilibria. Statistics, method selection and development, chromatography, and electrochemistry.
Prerequisites: CHE214/215 or CHE208/208D. Offered: Spring Corequisites: Registration in CHE313 is required.

CHE313 • Quantitative Analysis Lab. 1 Credit.

Laboratory experience accompanying CHE312.
Corequisites: Registration in CHE312 is required. Offered: Spring.

CHE320 • Instrumental Analysis. 3 Credits.

Methods of instrumental analysis. Study of chemical and physical principles and practical application of spectroscopy, spectrometry, chromatography and electroanalysis. Fundamental electronic circuitry and computer data acquisition and control.
Prerequisites: CHE312/313 or CHE226/CHE227. Offered: Fall Corequisites: Registration in CHE321 is required.

CHE321 • Instrumental Analysis Lab. 1 Credit.

Laboratory experience accompanying CHE320.
Corequisites: Registration in CHE320 is required. Offered: Fall.

CHE344 • Thermodynamics, Kinetics, and Statistical Mechanics. 3 Credits.

Physical chemistry of the laws of thermodynamics and their application to phase and chemical equilibria. Chemical kinetics of reaction rates and reaction mechanisms. Statistical mechanics as it relates spectroscopy with thermodynamics and kinetics.
Prerequisites: CHE214/215 or CHE208/208D; PHY292/292D; PHY296/297; MAT125. Offered: Fall Corequisites: Registration in CHE345 is required.

CHE345 • Thermodynamics, Kinetics, and Statistical Mechanics Lab. 1 Credit.

Laboratory experience accompanying CHE344. Includes hands-on experience with physiochemical systems and computational modeling.
Corequisites: Registration in CHE344 is required. Offered: Fall.

CHE348 • Quantum Chemistry and Spectroscopy. 3 Credits.

Physical chemistry of the laws of quantum mechanics applied to atoms and molecules. Quantum mechanical solutions of model systems and their application to chemical spectroscopy.
Prerequisites: CHE208/208D or CHE214/215; PHY292/292D; PHY296/297; MAT125. Offered: Spring Corequisites: Registration in CHE349 is required.

CHE349 • Quantum Chemistry and Spectroscopy Lab. 1 Credit.

Laboratory experience accompanying CHE348. Includes hands-on experience with physiochemical systems and computational modeling.
Corequisites: Registration in CHE348 is required. Offered: Spring.

CHE364 • Advanced Inorganic Chemistry. 3 Credits.

Chemistry of elements and their compounds, including symmetry, bonding theories, solid-state chemistry, coordination compounds, organometallics, and bioinorganic compounds.
Prerequisites: One year of organic chemistry or junior standing; CHE344/345. Offered: Spring Corequisites: Registration in CHE365 is required.

CHE365 • Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Lab. 1 Credit.

Laboratory experience accompanying CHE364. Laboratory includes synthesis and characterization of inorganic compounds.
Corequisites: Registration in CHE364 is required. Offered: Spring.

CHE388 • Biochemistry I. 3 Credits.

Physical and chemical properties of living systems with an emphasis on macromolecular interaction, structure, and function. Structure, classification, purification, and function of nucleic acids, proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids, including membrane transport and enzymology.
Prerequisites: CHE226/227; CHE344/345; BIO120/121. BIO354/355 recommended. Corequisites: Registration in CHE389 is required. Offered: Fall. Special Notes: Not open to students who have taken CHE304/305. Carries cross-credit in biology.

CHE389 • Biochemistry I Lab. 1 Credit.

Laboratory experience accompanying CHE388. Techniques include spectroscopy, chromatography, centrifugation, electrophoresis, and enzyme kinetics.
Corequisites: Registration in CHE388 is required. Offered: Fall.

CHE393 • Research. 1-4 Credits.

Utilization of the techniques and understanding of chemical principles on a term project. Use of original literature to formulate and conduct an original laboratory or computational research project under the supervision of a chemistry faculty member.
Prerequisites: Consent of department. Repeatable course. May only be taken for credit once. Offered: Fall, interim, spring.

CHE395 • Chemistry Seminar: Research and Professional Development. 1 Credit.

Students search the chemical literature and develop a proposal for their capstone research project. Discussion of chemical careers, graduate and professional school preparation, and ethical conduct in science.
Prerequisites: Junior standing; must be a chemistry or biochemistry/molecular biology major. Offered: Fall

CHE396 • Biochemistry II. 3 Credits.

Metabolic pathways, bioenergetics, metabolic regulation, and metabolism of macromolecules (carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids, and nucleotides). Macromolecular synthesis of RNA, DNA, and proteins, including an introduction to biotechnology.
Prerequisites: CHE388/389 or BIO388/389. Offered: Spring Corequisites: Registration in CHE397 is required.

CHE397 • Biochemistry II Lab. 1 Credit.

Laboratory experience accompanying CHE396. Laboratory includes procedures and experiments for the isolation and characterization of enzymes, RNA and DNA, molecular cloning, PCR, and gene expression.
Corequisites: Registration in CHE396 is required. Offered: Spring.

CHE490 • Chemistry Seminar: Research. 2 Credits.

Students pursues an origional research project in chemistry or biochemistry, supported by a faculty mentor. Required time commitment is approximately 3.5 hours per week per credit, including weekly meeting with faculty mentor.
Prerequisites: CHE395. Offered: Fall, spring

CHE491 • Research. 1-4 Credits.

Students pursues an original research project in chemistry or biochemistry, supported by a faculty mentor. Required time commitment is approximately 3.5 hours per week per credit, including weekly meeting with faculty mentor.
Prerequisites: CHE395. Offered: Fall, spring

CHE494 • Chemistry Seminar: Research Presentation. 1 Credit.

Students prepare and deliver formal presentations of their research results. Seminar meets weekly for discussion of current topics.
Prerequisites: CHE490. Offered: Fall,Spring

CHI101 • Introductory Chinese I. 4 Credits.

Development of listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills with an emphasis on promoting communicative competency in Chinese. Opportunities for meaningful communication in Mandarin Chinese.
Offered: Fall.

CHI102S • Introductory Chinese II. 4 Credits.

Continuation of functional and practical understanding and communicative use of the Chinese language. Further study of Chinese history and culture through films, discussions, and readings.
Prerequisites: CHI101 or placement exam. Offered: Spring

CHI201 • Intermediate Chinese I. 4 Credits.

Synthesis and expansion of comprehensive knowledge, grammar, and oral and written communication skills useful in daily interactions. Further development of understanding Chinese culture and societies, and preparation for possible study abroad experience.
Prerequisites: CHI102S or placement exam. Offered: Occasionally

COM110 • Basic Communication. 3 Credits.

Informal and formal communication patterns that characterize daily life, analysis of communication situations, and improvement of effective communication. Includes interpersonal, intercultural, small group, and speaker/audience communication settings.
Offered: Fall, interim, spring.

COM120 • Communication in a Virtual World. 3 Credits.

Examination of how communication technology and new media impact communication, including: identity formation, interpersonal relationships, group dynamics, and public presentations. Specific technologies such as online social networking and mobile devices are evaluated for their effect on users, challenging students to identify how to intentionally manage their personal use of technology.
Offered: Occasionally.

COM135 • Forensics. 1 Credit.

Participation in off-campus forensics tournaments. Students work with the forensics coaching staff in the areas of debate, limited preparation speaking, public address, or interpretation, and participate in multiple tournaments.
Repeatable course -may be repeated for up to 4 credits. Offered: Fall, spring. Special Notes: Open to Forensics Team members fall and spring.

COM170A • Media Production I. 4 Credits.

Equips students with the most basic “hands-on” visual media production skills in which students learn the fundamentals of visual media production, including multi-camera studio production, digital filmmaking, and digital post-production.
Offered: Fall, spring.

COM208U • Native Americans and the Media. 3 Credits.

Analysis of media portrayals of Native Americans. Emphasis on Native American cultures and voices, mainstream portrayals of Native Americans through a variety of media, and social and media critical tools for examining media mainstream images of minority groups.
Prerequisites: GES130 (may be taken concurrently) or GES244 (may be taken concurrently). Offered: Occasionally interim

COM209 • Introduction to Health Communication. 3 Credits.

Introduces students to communication surrounding health care. Beginning with the history of health care and theoretical foundations of what health and illness mean, the course goes on to explore concepts like provider-patient communication, social support, health literacy, cross-cultural barriers to health care, ethical considerations surrounding health communication and a Chrisitan approach to health and illness.
Offered: Fall.

COM210 • Perspectives on Human Communication. 3 Credits.

Examination of the communication discipline through the exploration and application of communication theories. Provides a theoretical foundation for communication studies and media communication majors by exploring significant communication concepts in the areas of human, media, organizational, and rhetorical communication.
Offered: Fall, spring.

COM213 • Media Communication. 3 Credits.

An overview of mass media industries, including print, broadcast, cable, film, and the internet. Survey of media history, functions, and impacts on society.
Offered: Fall, occasionally interim, spring.

COM215 • Web Design for Mass Media. 3 Credits.

An introduction to the growing world of multimedia design on the web. Students are introduced to the process and techniques used in designing and publishing for the web.
Offered: Spring. Special Notes: No background with web design is necessary, but familiarity with the internet and a current browser is required.

COM217A • Screenwriting. 4 Credits.

Study of the conventions of the screenplay and practice in screenwriting. Emphasis on creating and adapting, writing, and editing narrative screenplays.

COM220 • Group Communication. 4 Credits.

Vital role that small groups play in daily life, group problem solving and group interaction, and greater effectiveness in working in small groups. Examination of leadership, group cohesiveness, and conflict management.
Offered: Fall, spring.

COM230L • Introduction to Rhetoric and Public Influence. 3 Credits.

An introduction to rhetorical theory and persuasion. Basic principles of rhetorical analysis and the importance of rhetoric and persuasion theory in everyday life. Application of rhetorical theory to a variety of different media, political, and social situations, particularly with regard to the United States in the post-Civil War era.
Prerequisites: GES130 and GES160 (may be taken concurrently) or GES244 (may be taken concurrently). Offered: Fall

COM235 • Forensics. 1 Credit.

Participation in off-campus forensics tournaments. Students work with the forensics coaching staff in the areas of debate, limited preparation speaking, public address, or interpretation, and participate in multiple tournaments.
Repeatable course - may be repeated for up to 4 credits. Offered: Fall, spring. Special Notes: Open to Forensics Team members fall and spring.

COM248 • Organizational Communication. 3 Credits.

Communication practices and problems found in organizations. Communication concerns related to organizational structure, conflict, effectiveness, roles (emphasizing leadership), work processes, and decision making. Interviewing as an organizational practice and as a research tool.
Offered: Fall.

COM264 • Storytelling. 3 Credits.

An examination of communication in electronic media through the analysis and development of narrative structure and story elements as they are used in a variety of media industries. Students will learn to create compelling stories for audio and visual media through the analysis of scene, character arc, action, motif, etc.
Prerequisites: COM170A or consent of instructor. Offered: Interim, even # years

COM270 • Media Production II. 4 Credits.

The second of two “hands-on” media courses in which students learn the specific techniques of cinematography, audio, and editing visual productions. Training in the critical aspects of editing theory and the analysis of the post-production process.
Prerequisites: COM170A. Offered: Fall, spring

COM301A • Oral Interpretation. 4 Credits.

Focuses on the creative process involved in the oral performance of prose, poetry, and drama. Students explore and practice methods and techniques for selecting, analyzing, understanding, and adapting literature for oral performance. Emphasizes artistic expression through the performance of compiled literary scripts individually and in groups.
Prerequisites: Junior standing or consent of instructor. Offered: Fall

COM302 • Media Law. 3 Credits.

Examination of mass media law and policy through the use of court cases, policy documents, legislation, legal history, and legal philosophy. Special emphasis on First Amendment and ethical issues related to media practices.
Offered: Fall, spring.

COM310K • Communication, Technology and Society. 3 Credits.

An examination of the impact communication technology has on communication and society. Evaluation and exploration of technologies such as digital media, the internet, and other emerging technologies. Analysis of the ethical and spiritual implications and applications of these technologies.
Prerequisites: Laboratory Science (D) course; Mathematics (M) course. Offered: Fall, occasionally interim, spring

COM314G • Gender Communication. 3 Credits.

Examination of the force of rhetoric on historical and social movements since 1800. Concentrates on movements that cross gender lines and impact modern men and women. Studies religious revivals and Christian action groups as related to the sweep of history. Considers gender differences and similarities, verbal and nonverbal.
Prerequisites: [GES130; GES160; Contemporary Western Life and Thought (L) course; World Cultures (U) course] or [GES244; World Cultures (U) course]. Offered: Fall

COM315G • European Language and Culture Area Study. 3 Credits.

An introduction to specific European cultures, languages, and communication styles. Students experience European cultures through first-hand interaction, special speakers, readings, and class excursions. Language lessons equip students to complete basic social tasks. Topics include worldview, education, political economy, ecology, history, and art as reflections of regional communication style.
Offered: Europe term; Fall, odd # years.

COM318 • Argumentation and Debate. 4 Credits.

Argumentation and debate principles, with application to written analysis, briefs, speeches, and debates. Analysis of an issue, reasoning and evidence, in-depth research, and oral delivery.
Offered: Spring.

COM319 • Health Campaigns and Technology. 3 Credits.

Explores how health campaigns and technology influence individual and societal health behavior and attitudes. Examines both teoretical and applied approaches to health literacy, health informatics, and the process of influencing health-related choices. Culminates with the creation of a health campaign that utilizes appropriate theories, methods, and technologies.
Prerequisites: COM209. Offered: Spring

COM322 • Advanced Group Communication. 4 Credits.

Advanced examination of group development and team building. Various theories and models of group formation and team building are analyzed and experienced as students become part of multiple Christian communities during the Europe Term in Intercultural Communication. Students learn how groups relate in differing cultures as well as how their Christian faith can play a role in group functioning.
Offered: Europe term; Fall, odd # years.

COM323 • Event Management & Leadership. 3 Credits.

Designing integrated communication approaches for conferences, professional meetings, celebratory events, and community outreach programs. Using a theory-informed approach, students engage the professional, interpersonal, and organizational coordination of information, people, and budgets. Specific attention to developing creative and constructive responses to unanticipated “rhetorical interruptions” and to identifying opportunities for institutional enhancement.
Prerequisites: COM248. Offered: Spring, odd # years

COM324 • Professional and Technical Communication. 4 Credits.

Introduction to professional and technical communication skills. Topics include interviewing, technical speaking, speaking and writing to a lay audience, and visual communication skills. Students will learn how to present complex information in a variety of formats with an audience centered approach.
Offered: Fall.

COM325 • Political Communication. 3 Credits.

Analysis of the theoretical background behind political communication from a public speaking and media perspective. Attention to decision-making skills required in political campaigns. Discussion of advanced persuasive campaign theory.
Prerequisites: COM110, POS100, or consent of instructor. Offered: Occasionally. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in political science.

COM335 • Forensics. 1 Credit.

Participation in off-campus forensics tournaments. Students work with the forensics coaching staff in the areas of debate, limited preparation speaking, public address, or interpretation, and participate in multiple tournaments. Repeatable course: May be repeated for up to 4 credits.
Offered: Fall, spring. Special Notes: Open to Forensics Team members fall and spring.

COM350 • Corporate Communication. 3 Credits.

Theories and principles of corporate communication including issues related to public relations, media relations, corporate identity management, investor communication, and crisis communication in both for-profit and not-for-profit organizations.
Prerequisites: COM248; ENW115; or consent of instructor. Offered: Interim

COM352 • Broadcast Journalism. 3 Credits.

Theories and principles of broadcast writing with practical experience in writing news stories for radio and television. Analysis of broadcast news programming and procedures.
Prerequisites: COM213. Offered: Fall, even # years

COM355Z • Intercultural Communication. 4 Credits.

An exploration of the richly varied cultures of humankind and the influence of culture on verbal and nonverbal communication. The examination of theory is balanced by an examination of practical applications designed to improve intercultural competence in various contexts.
Prerequisites: World Cultures (U) course. Offered: Fall, even # years; spring, even # years; Europe term, fall, odd # years. Special Notes: The course includes a 30-hour intercultural service learning component.

COM361 • Rhetorical Criticism. 4 Credits.

Study of approaches to rhetorical criticism. Critical evaluation of a wide range of communication texts, their possible meanings, and their implications for various audiences and situations. Students learn methods used to analyze communication texts as well as historical and future trends in the field of rhetorical criticism.
Prerequisites: COM210 or COM230L. Offered: Fall

COM363 • Methods of Communication Research. 4 Credits.

The modern foundations for study, evaluation, and research in the entire field of communication. Readings, statistics, and finished research projects are the focus of study.
Prerequisites: COM210; two courses in communication. Offered: Fall, spring

COM370 • Interpersonal Communication. 4 Credits.

The interpersonal communication process. Theory and pragmatics related to dyadic communication. Explores issues such as self-discipline, self-esteem, listeners, emotions, conflict, relational development and maintenance, gender, and nonverbal communication. Opportunity to evaluate and develop personal interaction skills.
Offered: Fall, spring.

COM373 • Digital Filmmaking. 4 Credits.

An advanced media course in which students learn hands-on, single-camera production on location. Areas of study include cinema verité, documentary, and experimental/music video. All projects are edited with non-linear computer systems, and published to DVD and web.
Prerequisites: COM170A; COM270. Offered: Spring

COM374 • Broadcast Production. 4 Credits.

An advanced media production course that provides an in-depth understanding of audience analysis, news and sports programming, advanced multi-camera, live production, and field news reporting. Implementation of new digital technologies and production techniques for webcasting are included.
Prerequisites: COM170A or consent of instructor. Offered: Fall

COM375 • Media Criticism and Theory. 3 Credits.

Explores theoretical and critical approaches to the study of video, audio, film, and digital culture. Theories and methods in this course examine issues relating to production and authorship in the media arts, audience reception and effects, political ideology, ethics, aesthetics, cultural diversity, and schools of thought within the liberal arts. Extensive critical writing and reading in media criticism and theory.
Prerequisites: COM210; COM213. Offered: Spring

COM376 • Public Relations Writing and Strategies. 3 Credits.

Explores approaches and techniques for conducting research and writing within key public relations contexts. Students practice essential writing skills and strategies needed to perform a variety of projects in the public relations profession, including biographies, press releases, fact sheets, backgrounders, newsletters, brochures, pitch letters, speeches, feature stories, and social media posts.
Prerequisites: COM248; COM350. Offered: Spring, even # years

COM386 • Advanced Public Speaking. 4 Credits.

Preparation and delivery of speeches at an advanced level. Speeches can include persuasive, entertaining, informative, special occasion, business presentations, and storytelling.
Prerequisites: Junior standing or consent of instructor. Offered: Fall; spring, even # years

COM387 • Speaking in Ministry Contexts. 4 Credits.

Creation and delivery of presentations that prepare students to deliver the types of messages required in ministry contexts. Students work on biblical interpretation, adapting a biblically based message to specific audiences and contexts, and learning to communicate in a clear and relevant manner.
Prerequisites: Junior or senior standing, consent of instructor. Offered: Spring, odd # years

COM400 • Family Communication. 4 Credits.

Communication patterns that help or hinder relationships within the family system. Functioning in simulated family groups, students develop personal roles. Various approaches to ­conflict, power, stress, intimacy, and family health. The family system in light of Christian attitudes and life patterns.
Prerequisites: Junior standing. Offered: Spring

COM435 • Forensics. 1 Credit.

Participation in off-campus forensics tournaments. Students work with the forensics coaching staff in the areas of debate, limited preparation speaking, public address, or interpretation, and participate in multiple tournaments.
Repeatable course May be repeated for up to 4 credits. Offered: Fall, spring. Special Notes: Open to Forensics Team members fall and spring.

COM460 • Topics in Organizational Communication. 3 Credits.

Advanced studies in organizational communication with the specific topic announced prior to registration. Possible topics may include public relations, corporate communication, consulting, training and development, or media relations. Emphasis on exploring current issues from both a theoretical and hands-on perspective.
Prerequisites: COM350 or consent of instructor. Repeatable course May be repeated if a different topic is emphasized. Offered: Fall, occasionally

COM462 • Topics in Relational Communication. 3 Credits.

Special and/or advanced studies in relational communication with the topic announced prior to registration. Possible topics include conflict management, communication and emotion, and and nonverbal communication.
Repeatable course May be repeated if a different topic is emphasized. Offered: Fall.

COM463 • Topics in Communication Analysis. 3 Credits.

Special and/or advanced studies in rhetorical analysis with the topic announced prior to registration. Possible topics include rhetoric of religion, crisis communication, and presidential rhetoric. Spring 2017: “The Rhetoric of Social Movements” Study of advanced approaches to rhetorical criticism. Focuses on further elaboration of persuasion and an understanding of social movements from a communication perspective. Theories applied to contemporary and historical communication artifacts. The role of social media in movements is also explored.
Prerequisites: COM210; COM230L, COM361, or consent of instructor. Repeatable course: May be repeated if a different topic is emphasized. Offered: Interim, occasionally spring

COM481 • Internship in Communication. 3-4 Credits.

Experience to apply and expand communication knowledge and skills in structured, off-campus settings, such as corporations, governmental offices, nonprofit organizations, television and radio stations, and corporate media departments.
Prerequisites: Junior standing; consent of department. Repeatable course: May be repeated for credit. Offered: Fall, spring

COM493 • Capstone: Independent Filmmaking and Media Production. 4 Credits.

A culminating course in which students demonstrate their understanding and skill of all phases of filmmaking or media production through the art of documentary filmmaking.
Prerequisites: COM302; COM373 or COM374; senior standing. Offered: Spring

COM494 • Capstone: Organizational Communication. 4 Credits.

Engages students in the process of researching, structuring, conducting, and evaluating communication audits or public relations campaigns. Emphasizes synthesis and integration of skills and theories learned in the organizational communications major.
Prerequisites: COM350; COM363; senior standing. Offered: Spring

COM497 • Capstone: Relational Studies. 4 Credits.

Guided exploration of “understudied relationships” specific to the relational communication discipline. Focus on synthesizing and integrating faith, communication skills, knowledge, theory, research, and competencies learned in the relational communication emphasis.
Prerequisites: COM220 or COM322; COM363; COM370. Offered: Spring

COM498 • Capstone: Rhetoric and Public Influence. 4 Credits.

Advanced study in foundational rhetorical theory as well as within a specific rhetorical tradition of the student’s choosing. A significant presentation on a specific theoretical framework and a major research paper are required.
Prerequisites: COM230L; COM361. Offered: Spring, Odd # years

COS100 • Introduction to Programming. 3 Credits.

An introduction to programming using a current procedural (imperative) programming language. Standard data types and control structures are introduced.
Offered: Fall, interim.

COS105 • Computer Science 1. 4 Credits.

Introduction to fundamental computer programming design principles. Strong emphasis on theory. Extensive programming assignments in a current object-oriented computer language.
Prerequisites: COS100, COS205, or equivalent proficiency; MAT123M, MAT124M, MAT125, or equivalent proficiency. Offered: Spring. Special Notes: Not designed as a computer literacy course. Includes 6 lab hours.

COS205 • Scientific Computing. 3 Credits.

Introduction to programming in C and C++ with an emphasis on issues relevant to scientific computing such as machine error, performance, and implementation of common numerical algorithms.
Prerequisites: MAT124M. Offered: Fall, spring

COS212 • Computer Science 2. 4 Credits.

Elementary data structures such as file structures, linked lists, and simple trees. Introduction to fundamental search and sort algorithms, analysis, design methodologies, and object-oriented programming. Extensive programming assignments in a current computer language.
Prerequisites: COS105; MAT123M, MAT124M, MAT125, or equivalent proficiency. Offered: Fall. Special Notes: Includes 6 lab hours.

COS214 • Computer Systems. 4 Credits.

Assembly and machine language to study computer organization and structure, addressing techniques, digital representation of instructions, program segmentation, and linkage.
Prerequisites: COS212. Offered: Spring. Special Notes: Includes 6 lab hours.

COS216 • Data Structures and Algorithms. 3 Credits.

Advanced data structures, algorithms, and algorithm analysis. Extensive programming assignments in a current object-oriented computer language.
Prerequisites: COS212; MAT241. Offered: Spring

COS301 • Operating Systems and Computer Architecture. 4 Credits.

Computer organization, structure of operating systems, memory management, process management, resource allocation, and operating system monitors. Alternative approaches to operating system design.
Prerequisites: COS214; knowledge of C or C++. Offered: Fall

COS313 • Database Systems. 3 Credits.

Relational and object-oriented databases, schemas, and normalization. Database management systems, SQL, concurrent transactions, logging/disaster recovery, and query optimization. Application program interaction with database management systems.
Prerequisites: COS216. Offered: Fall, even # years

COS318 • Web Programming. 3 Credits.

An examination of the foundational technologies used for creating web applications. Includes client- and server-side programming languages (JavaScript and PHP), data serialization standards (XML, JSON, and URI encoding), security, storage, and web services.
Prerequisites: COS216. Offered: Fall. Special Notes: Some knowledge of HTML and the basics of JavaScript are expected.

COS320 • Computer Graphics Programming. 3 Credits.

An introduction to the drawing methods, geometrical transforms, and illumination models that are fundamental to computer graphics programming. Topics include modeling of 2D and 3D objects, local and global illumination simulation, shading, color models, procedural modeling, and discrete (fragment) techniques including texture mapping. A current graphics API is used, including custom shaders.
Prerequisites: COS216. Offered: Fall, odd # years

COS334 • Data Mining. 3 Credits.

An introduction to widely-used techniques for extracting information from large data sets such as medical databases, credit reports, weather history, and the stock market. Includes algorithms for nominal and ordinal data and metrics to measure their performance. Students will implement common algorithms with real data and choose appropriate algorithms for different applications.
Prerequisites: COS216 Offered: Spring, even # years.

COS337K • Behavioral Robotics. 3 Credits.

Control and automation are fundamental aspects of human, animal, and machine behavior. These topics will be considered from philosophical and psychological perspectives and explored through robotics and other hands-on expirimental labs, in order to develop both a practical and thoretical understanding of behavior.
Prerequisites: Laboratory Science (D) course; Mathematics (M) course. Special Note: Carries cross credit in psychology. Offered: Interim

COS351 • High-Performance Computing. 3 Credits.

Fundamental concepts and techniques for parallel computation in C/C++ (load balancing, communication, synchronization, serial program decomposition) using an industry-standard parallel computing library.
Prerequisites: COS205 or COS214. Offered: Interim

COS371 • Organization of Programming Languages. 3 Credits.

Formal programming language specification using various grammars and the Backus-Naur Form. Data types and structures, control structures, and data flow of several programming languages, including interpreters and compilers. Introduction to parsing and lexical analysis.
Prerequisites: COS216. Offered: Spring, even # years

COS386 • Data Communications and Computer Networks. 3 Credits.

Data communications including interprocess communication, computer networking, and associated software protocols. Topics include network topologies, point-to-point network protocols, local area networks, and interconnection of networks.
Prerequisites: COS301. Offered: Spring, odd # years

COS389 • Artificial Intelligence. 3 Credits.

Basic concepts and techniques of artificial intelligence, including representation, notational structures, searches, control structures, and logic programming languages. Samples of current work in several application areas including natural language systems, expert systems, and neural networks.
Prerequisites: COS216. Offered: Spring, odd # years

COS420 • Sofware Process. 3 Credits.

Balancing the various rea-world challenges that a software engineer encounters, including ambiguity, conflicting requirements, task-time estimation, team dynamics, requests from customers, product managers or archetects. A team-based software project on a monder computer science topic will be developed during the semester.
Prerequisites: COS216; COS477 recommended Offered: Spring, odd # years.

COS450 • Humans and Computers. 3 Credits.

Examines the ways that humans and computers interact. Issues in user experience and human-machine interaction are explored. Christian and professional ethics in the development and application of computing technology are extensively examined.
Prerequisites: COS216. Offered: Interim, even # years. Special Notes: Students may not receive credit for both COS450 and GES334K.

COS477 • Software Engineering. 3 Credits.

Formal approach to the design and development of software. Design methodologies include object-oriented design, components, design patterns, and event-driven design. Project management, walkthroughs, documentation, team programming, and the development of a significant software project.
Prerequisites: COS216. Offered: Fall, odd # years

COS490 • Topics in Computer Science. 3 Credits.

A seminar to provide an in-depth survey of a recent trend or field in the rapidly changing discipline of computer science. Students work on a significant project and explore the future implications of the current topic.
Prerequisites: COS216. Offered: Occasionally

DES105 • Introduction to Digital Media. 3 Credits.

Understand the tools and concepts of digital art-making and graphic design with an emphasis on foundational proficiency in industry standard software and hardware. Utilize and combine digital tools to solve visual and technical problems as part of a growing design and studio art practice.
Offered: Fall, spring.

DES150 • Typography. 3 Credits.

Typography—the visual presentation of language—is a foundational component of graphic design. Identify and investigate basic principles and communicative potential through project-based exploration of the following topics: terminology, letterforms, readability, hierarchy, structure, visual syntax, history, and context.
Offered: Fall.

DES212 • Graphic Design I. 3 Credits.

Explore the foundational visual components of design and their communicative and creative potential through visual experiments, isolated studies, and careful observation. Develop original content through a design process that includes idea generation, material experimentation, evaluation, and iteration.
Prerequisites: DES105. Offered: Fall, spring

DES312 • Graphic Design II. 3 Credits.

Combine and extend basic design and typography principles through a range of real-world project scenarios. Engage with clients and manage projects from initial ideation through production stages. Special attention to strategizing, problem-defining and solving, collaboration, client interaction, and production.
Prerequisites: DES212. Offered: Spring, odd # years

DES322 • Digital Image Making. 3 Credits.

Develop advanced methods for brainstorming and creating engaging, communicative professional images. Through exposure to a broad range of techniques, collaboration, critique, and revision, work is advanced and personal image making processes are established.
Prerequisites: DES212. Offered: Interim

DES324 • Interactive Design. 3 Credits.

Develop and maintain a variety of interactive projects including websites, digital publishing, interactive documents, and applications. Work collaboratively to strategize solutions for complex projects that identify and respond to users’ needs. Understand and adapt to the rapid evolution of technology through research and self-teaching.
Prerequisites: DES312 or consent of instructor. Offered: Fall

DES412 • Graphic Design III. 3 Credits.

Engage complex open-ended design problems in a collaborative environment. Utilize research, prototyping, and user interaction to develop efficient and scalable solutions. Develop personal design approach, values, ethical convictions, and portfolio materials.
Prerequisites: DES312 or consent of instructor. Offered: Spring, even # years

DES481 • Internship in Design. 1-4 Credits.

Educational and practical experience in applying understanding and skill in a professional setting. An internship can be arranged in a design studio, advertising firm, non-profit organization, or other appropriate workplace. Supervised by a design faculty member.
Prerequisites: Five DES courses or consent of instructor; major in graphic design. Offered: Fall, spring

DIG200 • Introduction to Digital Humanities. 3 Credits.

Introduction to the theory and practice of the digital humanities, or using computing skills to further study within the humanities disciplines. Integrates foundational humanities skills like reading, research, critical thinking, and writing with the toolset of 21st century digital life: E.G., coding, data visualization, mapping, text-mining, digital preservation and curation.
Offered: Fall.

DIG310 • Advanced Digital Humanities. 3 Credits.

Interdisciplinary seminar deepening conversation about the digital humanities. Students collaborate with others and contribute expertise from their primary major to create sophisticated digital projects. Explores the history and theory of innovation, the personal and social impact of digitization, and the changing nature of work and leisure in a digital age.
Prerequisites: DIG200; DES105; COS100; Junior standing. Offered: Spring

DIG481 • Internship in Digital Humanities. 3-4 Credits.

Practical experience enabling students to hone a range of digital skills to complement their abilities in critical thinking, research, and communication. Includes collaboration with peers, staff, professors and/or off-campus partners.
Prerequisites: DIG200; Junior or Senior standing; Digital Humanities major Offered: Fall, Interim, Spring.

ECO200 • Economics of Public Policy Analysis. 3 Credits.

Economic analysis of government programs, focusing on programs that provide essential services or financial assistance to the needy. Emphasis on careful definition of goals, measuring success, and evaluation of alternatives.
Offered: Spring. Special Notes: Students may not receive credit for both ECO200 and ECO201.

ECO201 • Principles of Economics. 4 Credits.

Economic reasoning and concepts. Includes an examination of the role of a price system in allocating resources and income, government policies for dealing with unemployment and inflation, and moral questions raised by the free enterprise system.
Offered: Fall, spring. Special Notes: Students may not receive credit for both ECO200 and ECO201.

ECO225L • The Redevelopment of Central City Neighborhoods. 3 Credits.

The holistic redevelopment of low-income communities using models and ideas from various disciplines: community development, urban planning, economics, federal and state government, and for-profit businesses.
Prerequisites: GES130 and GES160 (may be taken concurrently) or GES244 (may be taken concurrently). Offered: Spring

ECO301 • Intermediate Microeconomics. 3 Credits.

Models of consumption, production, and pricing in competitive and noncompetitive markets.
Prerequisites: ECO201. Offered: Fall, spring

ECO302 • Intermediate Macroeconomics. 3 Credits.

Models of real output and monetary behavior. Policies affecting unemployment, inflation, and economic growth.
Prerequisites: ECO201. Offered: Fall, spring

ECO305 • International Trade and Finance. 3 Credits.

Evaluation of alternative trade policies (free trade, tariffs, and nontariff barriers) and the international financial system (foreign exchange rates and balance of payments).
Prerequisites: ECO201. Offered: Spring

ECO310 • History of Economic Thought. 3 Credits.

Economic thinking from Smith to Keynes. Emphasis on both history and philosophy of the evolution of economic thought.
Prerequisites: ECO201. Offered: Occasionally

ECO320G • Economic Development of Less-Developed Countries. 3 Credits.

Evaluation of economic policies to promote economic development in low- and middle-income countries. Emphasis on the potential for growth that is both fair and sustainable.
Prerequisites: [GES130; GES160; Contemporary Western Life and Thought (L) course; World Cultures (U) course] or [GES244; World Cultures (U) course]. Offered: Spring

ECO340 • Econometrics. 4 Credits.

Computer-aided estimation of business and economic relationships. Understanding correct use of multiple regression analysis in testing hypotheses using time-series and cross-sectional data.
Prerequisites: ECO301; ECO302 (one of two can be taken concurrently with ECO340); MAT207M; a college-level calculus course. Offered: Spring

ECO401 • Advanced Economic Theory. 3 Credits.

Mathematical treatment of economic theory, emphasizing calculus.
Prerequisites: ECO301; ECO302; college-level course in calculus; senior standing or consent of instructor; all business core courses (except BUS481). Offered: Fall

ECO499 • Senior Seminar. 3 Credits.

The integration of Christian faith with the theory and practice of business and economics.
Prerequisites: All business core courses (except BUS481); Senior standing; economics major or minor, or economics and finance major. Offered: Fall

EDU200 • Introduction to Education. 3 Credits.

Contemporary issues in education in the light of history and educational thought. Various aspects of growth and development are included.
Prerequisites: 30 Credits. Offered: Fall, interim, spring

EDU201 • Introduction to Education Field Experience. 1 Credit.

A field experience requiring four hours per week observing and serving in an elementary or secondary school classroom.
Corequisites: ED200. Offered: Fall, interim, spring. Special Notes: Designated times are set by the education department.

EDU203 • School Health and Drugs. 2 Credits.

Examines the roles of teachers and schools in responding to adolescent health problems, including alcohol/drug problems, with particular attention to health promotion, prevention, and referral. Approaches adolescent drug/alcohol use from a variety of perspectives—behavioral, pharmacological, social, legal, and clinical. Emphasis is on the characteristics of effective comprehensive school-based drug abuse prevention programs.
Offered: Fall, spring.

EDU204UZ • Teaching and Learning in Guadalajara. 3 Credits.

Onsite experiential course designed to introduce students to Mexican culture and education in the city of Guadalajara. Components include observing and teaching in a Christian school, a homestay with a Mexican family, creation of a classroom ethnography, and an opportunity to reflect on the culture and education process of one Mexican school.
Prerequisites: GES130 or GES244; written consent of instructor. Fulfills: Course may count as a Spanish elective provided all work is completed in Spanish. Offered: Occasionally interim

EDU220 • Introduction to Middle Level Education. 3 Credits.

Identifies and defines the concept of exemplary and typical middle and junior high schools: philosophy, organizational structure, curriculum, and instructional characteristics. Students develop an understanding of the physical, emotional, social, cognitive, and moral stages of adolescent development and begin to develop the ability to relate middle-level program possibilities to adolescent developmental needs.
Prerequisites: EDU200; EDU201; admission to the education program. Corequisites: May be taken concurrently with EDU320. Offered: Fall, spring

EDU236UZ • Exploring British Education and Culture. 3 Credits.

Designed for students to immerse themselves in British culture and to explore the educational system, with an emphasis on the diverse populations of Pakistani and Indian students and schools. Provides students with three learning experiences: 1) observation and participation in British elementary and secondary schools; 2) homestay with a British family; and 3) cultural exploration in London and surrounding areas.
Prerequisites: EDU200; EDU201; GES130 or GES244; admission to the education program. Offered: Occasionally interim

EDU240 • Educational Psychology. 3 Credits.

Psychological foundations of education. Various aspects of growth and development, the nature and conditions of learning, implications for teaching, and evaluation.
Prerequisites: EDU200; EDU201; admission to the education program. Offered: Fall, spring. Special Notes: Intended for 5-12 and K-12 licensure students only.

EDU241 • Educational Psychology Field Experience. 1 Credit.

A field experience that requires four hours per week in an elementary or secondary school for observation and tutorial experience in a special education setting.
Prerequisites: EDU200; EDU201; admission to the education program. Corequisites: Must be taken concurrently with EDU240. Offered: Fall, spring. Special Notes: Designated times are set by the education department.

EDU250 • Educating the Exceptional Child. 3 Credits.

Teacher candidates learn the historical and legal foundations of educating exceptional children. Instructional design, teaching, referral, assessment, team planning, and placement procedures are introduced. The role of the family is discussed. All of the above are accomplished in the context of cultural pluralism.
Offered: Spring.

EDU271 • Education Psychology and Pedagogy. 2 Credits.

Foundational knowledge about the theories of learning, cognitive development, instructional planning and assessment practices, and professional reflection.
Prerequisites: EDU200; EDU201; admission to the education program. Corequisites: Must be taken concurrently with EDU272; EDU273; EDU274; EDU275. Offered: Fall, spring

EDU272 • Language and Literacy Development for Young Learners (K-3). 5 Credits.

Foundational knowledge about language development, literacy development, instructional methods, assessment practices, the creation of a literate and motivating environment, and the encouragement of family engagement in literacy.
Prerequisites: EDU200; EDU201; admission to the education program. Corequisites: Must be taken concurrently with EDU271; EDU273; EDU274; EDU275. Offered: Fall, spring

EDU273 • Primary Grade Practicum. 1 Credit.

Application of effective practices done in a primary classroom, working with individual students and small reading groups.
Prerequisites: EDU200; EDU201; admission to the education program. Corequisites: Must be taken concurrently with EDU271; EDU272; EDU274; EDU275. Offered: Fall, spring

EDU274 • Education Technology. 1 Credit.

Methods of integrating technology into the primary grades classroom are considered. The focus will be on approaches with technologies that are research-based, enhance student learning, and are linked to effective instructional strategies. Professional growth/development and developing digital citizenship/responsibility are considered.
Prerequisites: EDU200; EDU201; admission to the education program. Corequisites: Must be taken concurrently with EDU271; EDU272; EDU273; EDU275. Offered: Fall, spring

EDU275 • Kindergarten Education. 1 Credit.

Characteristics of kindergarten children and of the curriculum and teaching strategies appropriate for their developmental level.
Prerequisites: EDU200; EDU201; admission to the education program. Corequisites: Must be taken concurrently with EDU271; EDU272; EDU273; EDU274. Offered: Fall, spring

EDU292 • Foundations of Early Childhood Education. 3 Credits.

History, philosophy, goals, content of early childhood education programs, and updated research in child development. Analysis of teaching strategies appropriate for the development of children ages three to five years. Career opportunities in early childhood education.
Offered: Fall.

EDU293 • Foundations of Early Childhood Field Experience. 1 Credit.

Supervised observation and participation at Bethel University’s child development center or a partnering community early childhood education site.
Corequisites: Must be taken concurrently with EDU292. Offered: Fall.

EDU306 • Curriculum in Early Childhood Education. 3 Credits.

Developmental appropriateness of current curriculum models, equipment, and materials in an early childhood education program.
Prerequisites: EDU200; EDU201; EDU292; EDU293. Offered: Spring

EDU307 • Curriculum in Early Childhood Education Field Experience. 1 Credit.

Field experience at one of Bethel University’s child development centers or approved community partner site utilizing strategies learned in EDU306.
Prerequisites: EDU200; EDU201; EDU292; EDU293. Corequisites: Must be taken concurrently with EDU306. Offered: Spring

EDU317GZ • Educational Equity. 3 Credits.

Root causes and historical origins of the current disparity of opportunities in U.S. educational systems. Prepares future educators to be culturally competent and responsive critical thinkers who understand the barriers that perpetuate inequities. Addresses these challenges from a biblical and leadership perspective.
Prerequisites: [GES130; GES160; Contemporary Western Life and Thought (L) course; World Cultures (U) course] or [GES244; World Cultures (U) course]. Offered: Fall, interim, spring. Special Notes: Includes experiential learning in schools and community events.

EDU320 • Pedagogy and the Young Adolescent Learner. 1 Credit.

The philosophy and pedagogy of teaching in a middle school is different than teaching in a junior high school. Course activities will help students define, describe, and develop the following components of contemporary middle level schools: appropriate curriculum, interdisciplinary structure, and interdisciplinary teaching.
Prerequisites: EDU220 (or may be taken concurrently); EDU240/EDU241. Corequisites: Must be taken concurrently with EDU321. Offered: Fall, spring

EDU321 • Integrated Literacy in the Content Areas. 1 Credit.

Understanding of literacy development strategies and the role of reading in teaching content material related to specific subject areas. Review of content area texts, assessment and practice in adapting content materials to student needs.
Prerequisites: EDU220 (may be taken concurrently); EDU240;241. Corequisites: Must be taken concurrently with EDU320. Offered: Fall, spring.

EDU331 • Teaching and Learning. 3 Credits.

Provides a foundational knowledge of learning psychology and teaching methodology. Examines unique considerations for youth and adult learners, metacognition, formal/informal learning, multi-modal learning, learning in a variety of fields/contexts, and iterative program assessment.
Offered: Fall Corequisites: EDU332.

EDU332 • Teaching and Learning Field Experience. 1 Credit.

Teaching and Learning occurn in every field of practice to pass along skill and expertise. You'll work with the instructor to find shadowing field experiences where teaching an dlearning occur in a field of your interest and in conjunction with EDU331.
Offered: Fall Corequisites: EDU331.

EDU340 • Parent Child and Family Relationships. 3 Credits.

The family as a social/cultural unit with emphasis on the parents’ interaction with the developing child. Parent-child relations, parenting skills, family systems, and family structure and function.
Offered: Spring.

EDU342 • Observation, Assessment, Adaptation, and Referral in Early Childhood. 4 Credits.

Strategies used in early childhood settings to observe and assess young children’s development and to design goals and experiences based upon those assessments. Issues of early identification, referral to special services, building effective parent/professional partnerships, and programming in inclusive early childhood classrooms are discussed.
Prerequisites: EDU200; EDU201; EDU292; EDU293; admission to the education program. Offered: Fall

EDU344 • Health, Nutrition, and Safety with Young Children. 2 Credits.

Issues in health, nutrition, and safety as related to early childhood settings, birth through age six.
Prerequisites: EDU200; EDU201; EDU292; EDU293. Offered: Spring

EDU350 • Infant and Toddler Care. 3 Credits.

Strategies used in early childhood settings to assess infant/toddler development and needs, develop goals, and design appropriate learning experiences and environments. Building positive relationships with infants/toddlers and their parents in group settings.
Prerequisites: EDU200; EDU201; EDU292; EDU293; EDU306; EDU307; EDU340; admission to the education program. Offered: Fall

EDU351 • Infant and Toddler Development and Learning Field Experience. 1 Credit.

Field experience at the Bethel Child Development Center or approved partner infant and toddler setting to practice strategies learned in EDU350.
Prerequisites: EDU200; EDU201; EDU292; EDU293; EDU306; EDU307; EDU340; admission to the education program. Corequisites: Must be taken concurrently with EDU350. Offered: Fall

EDU363 • Health Curriculum and Methods. 1 Credit.

Principles, curriculum, and methods of teaching health in grades K-6. Role of the teacher and the school in responding to the special health needs of elementary-age children.
Prerequisites: EDU200; EDU201; admission to the education program. Offered: Fall, spring

EDU365 • Physical Education Curriculum and Methods. 1 Credit.

Principles, curriculum, and methods of teaching physical education in grades K-6.
Prerequisites: EDU200; EDU201; admission to the education program. Offered: Fall, spring

EDU366A • Visual Arts Curriculum and Methods. 1 Credit.

Methods, materials, and resources for teaching visual arts in grades K-6.
Prerequisites: EDU200; EDU201; admission to the education program. Offered: Fall, spring

EDU368A • Music Curriculum and Methods. 1 Credit.

Methods, materials, and resources for teaching music in grades K-6.
Prerequisites: EDU200; EDU201; admission to the education program. Offered: Fall, spring

EDU370 • Math Curriculum and Methods. 3 Credits.

Methods, materials, and resources for teaching mathematics in grades K-6. Emphasis placed on problem solving, inquiry, and conceptual understanding in a standards-based classroom.
Prerequisites: EDU200; EDU201; EDU271-275; EDU317GZ; MAT202M; NAS101D; NAS102D; NAS103D; NAS104D; admission to the education program. Corequisites: Must be taken concurrently with EDU371; EDU372; EDU373; EDU374; EDU375; EDU376. Offered: Fall, spring

EDU371 • Science Curriculum and Methods. 3 Credits.

Methods, materials, and resources for teaching science in grades K-6. Emphasis placed on inquiry and discovery learning, planning, and teaching in a standards-based classroom.
Prerequisites: EDU200; EDU201; EDU271-275; EDU317GZ; MAT202M; NAS101D; NAS102D; NAS103D; NAS104D; admission to the education program. Corequisites: Must be taken concurrently with EDU370; EDU372; EDU373; EDU374; EDU375; EDU376. Offered: Fall, spring

EDU372 • Educational Psychology. 3 Credits.

Psychological foundations of education continued from EDU271 with an emphasis on grades 4-6. Various aspects of growth and development, the nature and conditions of learning, implications for teaching, awareness of student variability, and strategies for meeting the needs of students with disabilities. Teacher/student relationships and strategies for maintaining a classroom environment where learning can occur.
Prerequisites: EDU200; EDU201; EDU271-275; EDU317GZ; MAT202M; NAS101D; NAS102D; NAS103D; NAS104D; admission to the education program. Corequisites: Must be taken concurrently with EDU370; EDU371; EDU373; EDU374; EDU375; EDU376. Offered: Fall, spring

EDU373 • Reading/Language Arts Curriculum and Methods. 3 Credits.

Reading methods and processes with a strong emphasis on comprehension and vocabulary development. Language arts skills: writing process, grammar, spelling, drama, listening and speaking skills, viewing skills for students in grades 4-6. A variety of creative and critical response modes to integrate literature across the curriculum.
Prerequisites: EDU200; EDU201; EDU271-275; EDU317GZ; MAT202M; NAS101D; NAS102D; NAS103D; NAS104D; admission to the education program. Corequisites: Must be taken concurrently with EDU370; EDU371; EDU372; EDU374; EDU375; EDU376. Offered: Fall, spring

EDU374 • Social Studies Curriculum and Methods: Planning. 3 Credits.

Methods, materials, and resources for teaching social studies in grades K-6. Emphasis placed on the use of process skills of the social scientist. Long- and short-term planning including integration of curriculum across content areas, embedding Minnesota Graduation Standards.
Prerequisites: EDU200; EDU201; EDU271-275; EDU317GZ; MAT202M; NAS101D; NAS102D; NAS103D; NAS104D; admission to the education program. Corequisites: Must be taken concurrently with EDU370; EDU371; EDU372; EDU373; EDU375; EDU376. Offered: Fall, spring

EDU375 • Integrating Technology in the Content Areas. 2 Credits.

Methods of integrating technology in various grade levels and content areas are examined. Students design, implement, and access strategies for assessment and learning. Emphasis on approaches to enhance student learning, increase motivation, and link to effective instructional strategies. Professional growth/development and developing digital citizenship/responsibility are considered.
Prerequisites: EDU200; EDU201; EDU271-275; EDU317GZ; MAT202M; NAS101D; NAS102D; NAS103D; NAS104D; admission to the education program. Corequisites: Must be taken concurrently with EDU370; EDU371; EDU372; EDU373; EDU374; EDU376. Offered: Fall, spring

EDU376 • Intermediate Grade Practicum. 1 Credit.

Application of effective practices done in a 3rd-6th grade classroom, working with large groups as well as small groups, adapting lessons for students with special needs. Special focus on integrated planning.
Prerequisites: EDU200; EDU201; EDU271-275; EDU317GZ; MAT202M; NAS101D; NAS102D; NAS103D; NAS104D; admission to the education program. Corequisites: Must be taken concurrently with EDU370; EDU371; EDU372; EDU373; EDU374; EDU375. Offered: Fall, spring. Special Notes: A residency option is available by application. Residents stay in the same cooperating classroom for Block 2 and student teaching.

EDU400 • Methods in Teaching K-12 English to Speakers of Other Languages. 3 Credits.

Theories of language learning, language acquisition, and classroom methodologies at the elementary and secondary levels. Exploration of instructional resources, uses of technology, evaluative procedures, and classroom management. Development of a philosophy of English as a Second Language education and practice in unit planning and teaching.
Prerequisites: LIN210; LIN300; admission to the education program. Offered: Fall

EDU401 • Middle Level Education Practicum in TESL. 1 Credit.

Classroom-based practicum in an ESL class of young adolescent learners. Emphasizes evaluation and application of concepts and strategies introduced in EDU400.
Corequisites: Must be taken concurrently with EDU400. Offered: Fall.

EDU406 • Methods in Teaching 5-8 English. 3 Credits.

An examination of how middle level philosophy translates into practice in English classes in grades 5-8. It is designed to be accompanied by a 1 credit practicum experience in a middle level school.
Prerequisites: EDU240 and EDU241 OR EDU271, EDU272, and EDU273. Corequisites: Must be taken concurrently with EDU407. Offered: Spring

EDU407 • Middle Level Education Practicum in English. 1 Credit.

Classroom-based practicum in an English class of young adolescent learners. Emphasizes evaluation and application of concepts and strategies introduced in EDU408.
Prerequisites: EDU240/EDU241. Corequisites: Must be taken concurrently with EDU406 or EDU408. Offered: Spring

EDU408 • Methods in Teaching 5-12 English. 3 Credits.

Methods and curriculum employed in teaching English in middle and high schools. Examines current technology in English education as well as interactive learning and teaching. Emphasizes vocabulary and academic language. Lesson and unit planning using best practices and developmentally appropriate principles.
Prerequisites: EDU240; EDU241; admission to the education program. Corequisites: Must be taken concurrently with EDU407; strongly recommended for EDU320. Offered: Spring

EDU410 • Methods in Teaching 5-8 Mathematics. 3 Credits.

Students in this course and related practicum actively engage in final preparations for entering the teaching profession. The classes are designated to help equip participants with numerous tools necessary for becoming teachers in the 21st Century mathematics classroom- reflective practitioners who are excited about mathematics and about continued professional growth as a teacher.
Prerequisites: EDU240 and EDU241 OR EDU271, EDU272, and EDU273. Corequisites: Must be taken concurrently with EDU411. Offered: Fall

EDU411 • Mathematics Education Practicum in grades 5-8 or 5-12. 1 Credit.

Students observe and participate in a high school and/or middle school mathematics classroom (minimum 40 hours on site). Develop deeper understanding of preadolescent and adolescent learners as well as curriculum, instruction, and assessment in the context of grades 5-12 school communities.
Prerequisites: EDU240 and EDU241 OR EDU271, EDU272, and EDU273. Corequisites: Must be taken concurrently with either EDU410 or EDU412. Offered: Fall 201811

EDU412 • Methods in Teaching 5-12 Mathematics. 3 Credits.

Teaching methodologies, materials, assessment, historical and current trends and issues in curriculum, development of a philosophy of mathematics education, and other topics related to teaching and learning mathematics in grades 5-8 and 9-12. Practice in planning lessons and units, implementing technology, and teaching.
Prerequisites: EDU240; EDU241; admission to the education program; senior standing or permission of instructor. Corequisites: Must be taken concurrently with EDU411. Offered: Fall

EDU413 • Methods in Teaching K-12 Art. 3 Credits.

Materials, methods, and curriculum employed in teaching art at both the elementary and secondary levels. Historical survey of philosophy of art education and present trends. Studio time for exploration and application of media suitable for both elementary and secondary levels.
Prerequisites: EDU240; EDU241; admission to the education program. Offered: Fall. Special Notes: Requirements for this course are fulfilled through EDUC682 Methods of Teaching Visual Arts, K-12, which is taught in conjunction with the Bethel University Graduate School.

EDU414 • Middle Level Education Practicum in Art. 1 Credit.

Classroom-based practicum in an art class of young adolescent learners. Emphasizes evaluation and application of concepts and strategies introduced in EDU413.
Prerequisites: EDU240; EDU241. Corequisites: Must be taken concurrently with EDU413. Offered: Fall

EDU418 • Methods in Teaching 9-12 Social Studies. 2 Credits.

Development of ability to take concepts from several component disciplines of social studies and communicate them effectively to, or direct their acquisition by, students in grades 9-12. Curriculum trends, materials, classroom methodologies, and teacher competencies are studied and applied.
Prerequisites: EDU240; EDU241; admission to the education program. Corequisites: Must be taken concurrently with EDU419. Offered: Spring

EDU419 • 5-8 Social Studies Methods and Practicum. 2 Credits.

Classroom-based practicum in a social studies class of young adolescent learners. Emphasizes evaluation and application of concepts and strategies introduced in EDU418.
Prerequisites: EDU240/EDU241; EDU220. Offered: Spring. Special Notes: Social studies 5-12 majors may take concurrently with EDU418.

EDU420 • Methods in Teaching 5-12 Science. 3 Credits.

Current methods and approaches used in the teaching of science in grades 5-12. Examination of ways to develop and present curriculum with emphasis on content, scientific investigation, inquiry, assessment, and safe laboratory practices.
Prerequisites: EDU240; EDU241; admission to the education program. Offered: Fall. Special Notes: Requirements for this course are fulfilled through EDUC681 Methods of Teaching 5-12 Science, which is taught in conjunction with the Bethel University Graduate School.

EDU422 • Curriculum and Methods of 5-12 Health Education. 3 Credits.

Exploration of the science and art of teaching health. Includes the skills of planning units, teaching lessons, writing measurable objectives, and evaluating lessons for students in grades 5-12 and the community. Major focus on learning and applying various teaching methods and strategies to the content areas within health education.
Prerequisites: EDU240; EDU241; admission to the education program; HPE130; HPE340. Offered: Fall

EDU423 • Middle Level Education Practicum in Health. 1 Credit.

Classroom-based practicum in a health education class of young adolescent learners. Emphasizes evaluation and application of concepts and strategies introduced in EDU422.
Prerequisites: HPE130; HPE340. Offered: Fall

EDU424 • Methods in Teaching K-12 Physical Education. 3 Credits.

Instructional process in physical education, grades K-12. Observation and practice of teaching skills and strategies, including: planning and delivering content, managing class, and monitoring student progress.
Prerequisites: EDU240; EDU241; HPE316 or consent of instructor; admission to the education program. Offered: Fall

EDU425 • Middle Level Practicum in Physical Education. 1 Credit.

Classroom-based practicum in a physical education class of young adolescent learners. Emphasizes evaluation and application of concepts and strategies introduced in EDU424.
Prerequisites: EDU240; EDU241; HPE247; HPE316. Corequisites: Must be taken concurrently with EDU424. Offered: Fall

EDU426 • Methods in Teaching K-12 World Languages and Cultures. 3 Credits.

Theories of language acquisition, language learning, and classroom methodologies at the elementary and secondary levels. Exploration of instructional resources, uses of technology, evaluative procedures, and classroom management. Development of a philosophy of communicative language teaching and practice in unit planning and teaching.
Prerequisites: EDU240; EDU241; admission to the education program; or a major or minor offered through the Department of World Languages and Cultures and consent of instructor. Offered: Fall. Special Notes: Service-learning and completion of oral proficiency assessment is required.

EDU427 • Middle Level Education Practicum in World Languages and Cultures. 1 Credit.

Classroom-based practicum in a Spanish class of young adolescent learners. Emphasizes evaluation and application of concepts and strategies introduced in EDU426.
Prerequisites: EDU240/241. Corequisites: Must be taken concurrently with EDU426. Offered: Fall

EDU428 • Methods in Teaching 5-8 Science. 2 Credits.

Current methods and approaches used in the teaching of science in grades 5-8. An examination of ways to develop and present curriculum with emphasis on assessment, instructional strategies, scientific investigations, safety training, and current issues in science education.
Prerequisites: Admission to the education program; EDU271, EDU272, EDU273, EDU274, and EDU275. Corequisites:Must be taken concurrently with EDU429. Offered: Fall

EDU429 • Science Education Practicum in Grades 5-8 or 5-12. 1 Credit.

Students observe and participate in a high school and/or middle school science classroom (minimum 40 hours on site). Develop deeper understanding of preadolescent and adolescent learners as well as curriculum, instruction, and assessment in the context of grades 5-12 school communities.
Prerequisites: EDU240/241; admission to the education program. Corequisites: Must be taken concurrently with EDU420. Offered: Fall

EDU432 • Methods in Teaching Elementary Music. 3 Credits.

Methods and materials for teaching music in the elementary school. The skills of singing, playing, moving, improvising, reading, and listening are explored as a means of helping children gain an intuitive and theoretical understanding of musical principles.
Prerequisites: EDU240; EDU241; major or minor in music; admission to the education program. Offered: Fall

EDU433 • Methods in Teaching Secondary Music. 3 Credits.

Methods and materials for teaching music in the middle school, junior high, and high school vocal and instrumental programs.
Prerequisites: EDU432; major or minor in music; admission to the education program. Offered: Spring

EDU434 • Middle Level Education Practicum in Music. 1 Credit.

Classroom-based practicum in a music class of young adolescent learners. Emphasizes evaluation and application of concepts and strategies introduced in EDU433.
Prerequisites: EDU432; major or minor in music. Corequisites: EDU433. Offered: Spring

EDU489 • Student Teaching in Preprimary. 3 Credits.

Observation and student teaching in a pre-k setting in which a student will be licensed to teach. Includes participation in a seminar.
Prerequisites: EDU292/293, EDU306/307; EDU340; EDU642; EDU344; Admission to student teaching. Offered: Fall, Spring, Interim, and Summer (depending on faculty availability).

EDU490 • Student Teaching Block. 1-15 Credits.

Observation and student teaching at appropriate level(s) for specified period(s). Includes participation in a seminar that meets regularly. Students earning a license to teach in two teaching majors must register for EDU490 in the primary license and in the second license. Both student teaching placements can occur within the same semester. Some situations may require the addition of student teaching during interim. Student teaching semester also includes a weekly seminar meeting by program. Students should communicate with their supervisors about meeting times and locations.
Prerequisites: Admission to student teaching; 2.50 GPA. Grade exceptions: Graded on an S/U basis. Offered: Fall, spring

EDU491 • Student Teaching in Middle Level. 3 Credits.

Observation and student teaching in fields in which a student will be licensed to teach. This involves student teaching in a Middle Level endorsement area.
Prerequisites: Admission to student teaching. Grade exceptions: Graded on an S/U basis. Offered: Fall, spring

ENL100 • Great Writers: An Introduction to Literature. 4 Credits.

Why do great works of literature endure, and how do they illuminate the human experience? Works by classic and contemporary authors are studied for their artistry; their portrayal of great ideas, hopes, joys, and sorrows; and their insight into beauty, truth, and self-understanding.
Offered: Fall, spring.

ENL102 • Survey of British Literature I. 4 Credits.

Major literary works from Anglo-Saxon times through the 18th century, with some attention given to the development of literary movements and genres. Authors include the Beowulf poet, Chaucer, Shakespeare, Donne, Milton, and Pope.
Offered: Fall.

ENL111 • American Life Stories. 3 Credits.

An introduction to American autobiography, exploring how individual Americans write their life stories. Consideration of the translation of some personal narratives into film. Selections reflect the rich cultural diversity of American life.
Offered: Occasionally.

ENL200 • Juvenile Literature. 3 Credits.

Reading of a wide range of juvenile literature. Study and discussion of reading interests and reading characteristics of juveniles. Review of bibliographies for juvenile reading.
Offered: Spring. Special Notes: Intended especially for prospective teachers.

ENL202 • Survey of British Literature II. 4 Credits.

Major writers and works from the Romantic, Victorian, and early 20th century periods. Historical and intellectual background. Writers include Blake, Wordsworth, Keats, Shelley, Arnold, Hopkins, Joyce, Conrad, and Yeats.
Prerequisites: GES160 or GES244. Offered: Occasionally Fall, spring

ENL204 • American Literary Traditions. 4 Credits.

Major American authors studied in their historical and cultural contexts, from the colonial era to the present.
Prerequisites: GES160 or GES244. Offered: Fall, spring

ENL215U • World Literature. 3 Credits.

Selected great works of non-American/non-British literature with an emphasis on non-Western works in their social and historical contexts.
Prerequisites: GES130 (may be taken concurrently) or GES244 (may be taken concurrently). Offered: Fall, occasionally interim, spring

ENL235L • Film and the Modern Sensibility. 3 Credits.

An exploration of film as an art form and as an expression of the meanings of “modernism.” Why film is a uniquely modern art form is addressed, as well as those themes that identify the “modern sensibility.” Films such as Citizen Kane, Rashomon, Do the Right Thing, Beloved, Tender Mercies, Apocalypse Now, and others are viewed and analyzed.
Prerequisites: GES130 and GES160 (may be taken concurrently) or GES244 (may be taken concurrently). Offered: Occasionally interim. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in philosophy.

ENL241L • Modern Mythmakers. 3 Credits.

Consideration of how writers and filmmakers appropriate mythic structures and archetypes to create meaningful narratives of human experience. Modern mythmakers may include: J.R.R. Tolkien, George Lucas, Toni Morrison, C.S. Lewis, and others.
Prerequisites: GES130 and GES160 (may be taken concurrently) or GES244 (may be taken concurrently). Offered: Fall or spring

ENL301 • Chaucer and Writers of Arthurian Quests. 4 Credits.

Major emphasis on The Canterbury Tales and Arthurian literature. Medieval pilgrimage and the Grail quest, as treated by English and continental authors.
Offered: Spring 2017.

ENL303 • Shakespeare: The Art of the Dramatist. 4 Credits.

Major plays in Shakespeare’s distinct periods and genres: history, comedy, tragedy, and romance. Both literary and theatrical aspects are examined, with attention to historical context. Emphasis on performance.
Offered: Spring.

ENL304 • Milton and the Seventeenth Century. 4 Credits.

Major emphasis on Milton’s Paradise Lost and his other poems and prose, with readings in metaphysical and religious poetry of such writers as Donne and Herbert.
Offered: Spring 2016.

ENL309 • Enlightenment and Romantic British Literature. 4 Credits.

British literature from Dryden, Pope, Swift, and Johnson, to Wordsworth, Coleridge, Keats, Shelley, and Byron. Emphasis on social and literary satire, prose forms, Romantic nature poetry, the changing role of the imagination, and criticism.
Offered: Spring 2018.

ENL311 • American Civil War Literature. 4 Credits.

Study of the American Civil War and its appeal to historical and literary imaginations. Selected works are studied in historical context, including the causes, the course of the war, and the consequences of the war for the nation.
Offered: Spring, odd # years.

ENL315G • Literature of the Oppressed. 3 Credits.

Literature that arises out of oppression. Explores oppression through the imaginative response of the oppressed. Typical historical foci include the Holocaust; totalitarianism; and the experience of African Americans, Native Americans, and women.
Prerequisites: [GES130; GES160; Contemporary Western Life and Thought (L) course; World Cultures (U) course] or [GES244; World Cultures (U) course]. Offered: Fall or spring

ENL316GZ • Literature of Faith: Christianity and Islam. 3 Credits.

Compares important literary works from both the Christian and Islamic worlds from the Middle Ages to the present. Emphasizes literary and historical study, as well as vigorous dialogue and inquiry, as vital tools for understanding present-day Christian and Muslim cultures. A significant cross-cultural experience, involving interaction with Muslim communities, is required.
Prerequisites: [GES130; GES160; Contemporary Western Life and Thought (L) course; World Cultures (U) course] or [GES244; World Cultures (U) course]. Offered: Occasionally

ENL317 • Stories of Refugees and Migrants in America. 4 Credits.

Narrative journalists and writers of fiction humanize the experience of displacement. Around the world, millions driven from their homes by conflict, deprivation or disasters, have sought new homes in the United States. Their stories enlarge our understanding of the human search for identity, opportunity, security and community.

ENL321 • Drama in Great Britain. 4 Credits.

Drama in performance, using the plays seen abroad during the England Term. Special attention paid to Shakespeare.
Offered: England Term, fall, odd # years.

ENL341K • Environmental Writing. 3 Credits.

As the environmental crisis has deepened, American nature writing has evolved into a richly creative endeavor that explores the complex interactions of nature, technology, and society. Students study environmental writing as a means for valuing biodiversity and for envisioning changes in global policies, applications of technology, and environmental ethics.
Prerequisites: Laboratory Science (D) course; mathematics (M) course. Offered: Fall or spring. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in Environmental Studies.

ENL350 • 20th Century Literature. 4 Credits.

Major writers, movements, and themes in early 20th century literature in their historical and intellectual context. Emphasis on the rise of modernism in England, France, and America. Major figures include Eliot, Pound, Joyce, Hemingway, Lawrence, Woolf, Stevens, Williams, and Faulkner.
Offered: Fall, even # years.

ENL352 • Contemporary Literature. 4 Credits.

Major writers, movements, and themes in literature published since World War II. Emphasis on responses to modernism, current trends, and the emergence of minority and women writers, especially in America.
Offered: Fall, odd # years.

ENL354 • Literature on Location: Major British Authors. 4 Credits.

Selected British authors in conjunction with the places that inspired or were the focus of their work. Authors may include Chaucer (Canterbury), Joyce (Dublin), Wordsworth and Coleridge (Lake District), Hardy (Dorset), and Woolf (Bloomsbury).
Offered: England Term, fall, odd # years.

ENL355 • Modernism in London, Dublin, and Paris. 4 Credits.

On-location study of the rise of modernism in literature and art in London, Dublin, and Paris in the early part of the 20th century. Focus on the intellectual and historical context, and on such figures as Eliot, Woolf, Pound, Joyce, Stein, and Hemingway.
Offered: England Term, occasionally.

ENL365 • Topics in Literary Studies. 4 Credits.

Close study in a specific topic or genre of literature. Emphasis on applying the skills of literature study to a closely focused topic.
Prerequisites: ENL102; ENL202; ENL204; or consent of instructor. Offered: Fall, even # years; spring, even # years

ENL498 • Research Seminar in English. 1 Credit.

Research methodology in literature or journalism. Development of a proposal for a scholarly project to be completed and formally presented in ENL499 or ENW499.
Prerequisites: Major in journalism, or literature and writing; junior standing. Offered: Fall. Special Notes: May not be taken concurrently with ENL499 or ENW499.

ENL499 • Senior Seminar in Literature. 3 Credits.

Analysis of a variety of topics relevant to the practice of literary studies with special consideration given to the role of the Christian reader and writer. Culminates in the completion of a major research project.
Prerequisites: Senior standing; major or minor in English; ENL498. Offered: Spring

ENR160 • Introduction to Engineering. 3 Credits.

Introduction to engineering fields, practicing engineers, engineering work, and the tools that engineers use. Topics such as process and methodology, statistical analysis, and the use of computer coftware (e.g., CAD) in the development of specifications, design, and prototyping. Emphasis on the ethics and responsibilities of the engineering process.
Offered: Interim.

ENR260 • Careers in Engineering and Physics Seminar. 1 Credit.

Focus on developing careers in high-technology fields such as engineering and physics. Emphasis on exploring some of the wide variety of specific careers possible through methods such as video, lecture, tours, and guest speakers. Development of practical professional skills such as writing resumes and cover letters, accumulating connections and experience, and developing techniques for interviewing.
Prerequisites: PHY296/297. Offered: Fall. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in physics.

ENR306 • Digital Logic and Design. 3 Credits.

Introduction to digital logic and design. Topics may include Boolean algebra, design and optimization of combinational and sequential logic, the use of programmable logic devices such as FPGA, VHDL or Verilog modeling, and an introduction to processors and memory. Extensive lab experience in the simulation, desin, construction and testing of digital circuits.
Prerequisites: PHY302/303, MAT125. Corequisites: Concurrent registration in ENR307 is required.

ENR307 • Digital Logic and Design Lab. 1 Credit.

Lab experience accompaning ENR306 .
Prerequisites: PHY302/303, MAT125. Corequisites: Concurrent registration in ENR306 is required.

ENR308 • Statics and Mechanics of Materials. 4 Credits.

Force and moment vectors, equilibrium of rigid bodies in two and three dimensions; trusses, friction, centroids, and moments of inertia. Linear elasticity; introduction to stress and strain analysis applied to beams, vessels, pipes, and combined loading; stress and strain; axial, flexural, and torsional deflections for linear elastic materials.
Prerequisites: MAT223 (may be taken concurrently); PHY292/292D. Offered: Spring, even # years

ENR316 • Analog Circuitry and Design. 3 Credits.

Feedback principles and electronic circuit theory and device theory applied to multistage transistor amplifiers. Detailed study of operational amplifiers. Power supply design. Nonlinear circuits. Introduction to filter theory. Introduction to noise analysis and low noise design. Circuit design and construction experience emphasized in projects and the laboratory. Corequisites: PHY202/PHY202. MAT222(may be taken concurrently).
Corequisites: Concurrent registration in ENR317 is required.

ENR317 • Analog Circuitry & Design Lab. 1 Credit.

Lab experience accompanying ENR316.
Prerequisites: PHY202/PHY202. MAT222(may be taken concurrently). Corequisites: Concurrent registration in ENR316 is required.

ENR320 • Mathematical Methods in Physics and Engineering. 4 Credits.

Development of skill in mathematical techniques useful in the solution of physics and engineering problems. Included are vector analysis; line and surface integrals; Fourier analysis; partial differential equations; and linear algebra topics such as basis, dimension, matrices, eigenvalues/eigenvectors.
Prerequisites: MAT222; MAT223. Offered: Fall. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in physics.

ENR326 • Circuit Analysis & Simulations. 3 Credits.

Circuit analysis techniques as applied to: sinusoidal steady state analysis with power calculations, first and second order transient analysis in both time and Laplace domains, three-phase circuits and magnetically coupled circuits. Additional topics include: frequency response, resonance, filters, Bode plots. Simulation of electrical and electronic circuits will be emphasized.
Prerequisites: PHY302/ PHY303. Corequisites: Concurrent registration in ENR327 is required.

ENR327 • Circuit Analysis & Simulations Lab. 1 Credit.

Lab experience accompanying ENR326.
Corequisites: Concurrent registration in ENR326 is required.

ENR336 • Signals and Systems. 4 Credits.

Continuous- and discrete-time signals and systems. Topics include: definitions and properties of signals and systems, convolution, solution of differential and difference equations, Laplace and Z transforms, and Fourier analysis. Emphasis is on applicaitons to signal processing, communication and control systems.
Prerequisites: MAT222, PHY302/PHY303, ENR352/ ENR353.

ENR352 • Computer Methods in Physics and Engineering. 3 Credits.

Application of the computer to solving applied problems of interest to physicists and engineers. Computer techniques are developed for numerical methods, simulation models, and data acquisition and control in the laboratory.
Prerequisites: MAT223; PHY296/297 (grade of C or better) or consent of instructor. Corequisites: Concurrent registration in ENR353 is required. Offered: Spring. Special Notes: PHY302/303 is recommended. Carries cross-credit in physics.

ENR353 • Computer Methods in Physics and Engineering Lab. 1 Credit.

Laboratory experience accompanying ENR352.
Corequisites: Concurrent registration in ENR352 is required. Offered: Spring. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in physics.

ENR422 • Fluid Mechanics. 3 Credits.

Laws of statics, kinematics, and dynamics applied to fluid mechanics. Integral and differential conservation laws for mass, momentum, and energy. Dimensional analysis, viscous pipe flow, boundary layers, separated flows, and potential flow.
Prerequisites: MAT223; PHY296/297 (grade of C or better) or consent of instructor. Corequisites: Concurrent registration in ENR423 is required. Offered: Fall, even # years. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in physics.

ENR423 • Fluid Mechanics Lab. 1 Credit.

Laboratory experience accompanying ENR422.
Corequisites: Concurrent registration in ENR422 is required. Offered: Fall, odd # years. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in physics.

ENR424 • Materials and Devices. 3 Credits.

Theory and application of condensed matter and materials. Physical origin of electrical, optical, mechanical, thermal, and magnetic properties. Particular emphasis on devices such as pn junction diodes, LEDs, solar cells, piezoelectrics, liquid crystals, nanostructures, and sensors. An accompanying lab explores characterization of materials and design, fabrication, and testing of devices.
Prerequisites: PHY302/303 or PHY312/313. Corequisites: Concurrent registration in ENR425 is required. Offered: Fall, even # years. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in physics.

ENR425 • Materials and Devices Lab. 1 Credit.

Laboratory component of ENR424 .
Corequisites: Concurrent registration in ENR424 required. Offered: Fall, even # years. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in physics.

ENR436 • Microprocessors. 3 Credits.

Advanced principlies of microcomputer hardware and software. Topics include computer organization, instruction sets and addressing modes, assembly language programming, arithmetic and logic operations, input/output, buffers, interrupts and special purpose features such as A/D converters.
Prerequisites: ENR306/ENR307. Corequisites: Concurrent registration in ENR437 is required.

ENR437 • Microprocessors Lab. 1 Credit.

Lab experience accompanying ENR436.
Corequisites: Concurrent registration in ENR436 is required.

ENR446 • Control Systems. 3 Credits.

Time and frequency domain representation of feedback control systems. Topics include: stability criteria, root locus methods, frequency response techniques, digital implementation and hardware considerations.
Prerequisites: ENR336. Corequisites: Concurrent registration in ENR447 is required.

ENR447 • Control Systems Lab. 1 Credit.

Lab experience accompanying ENR446.
Corequisites: Concurrent registration in ENR446 is required.

ENR450 • Topics in Applied Physics and Engineering. 3-4 Credits.

Topics selected from various fields of engineering and applied physics for the purpose of illustrating the practical application of physical principles. Emphasis on developing the skills and viewpoints commonly used by engineers and industrial physicists.
Prerequisites: ENR320 (may be taken concurrently); MAT222. Repeatable course: Course may be repeated when a different topic is emphasized. Offered: Occasionally. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in physics. The field of engineering or applied physics is announced prior to registration.

ENR465 • Engineering Design Seminar. 1 Credit.

Prepares students for engineering practice through a major design experience. Design projects will have a major engineering component to them, but will be intentionally multi-disciplinary in nature. Students work in teams to design a system to meet a given specification that requires the incorporation of relevant engineering standards.
Prerequisites: Senior standing and a declared major in Electrical Engineering.

ENR490 • Engineering Design Project. 3 Credits.

Prepares students for engineering practice through a major design and prototyping experience. The design produced in ENR465 will be the basis for building a prototype system. The prototype will incorporate relevant engineering standards. Final designs and prototypes are documented in a professional manner and presented publicly.
Prerequisites: ENR465.

ENS104 • Environment and Humanity. 3 Credits.

Introduction to environmental studies. Interrelationships and interactions of humans with the natural environment in which they live. Causes of and potential solutions to environmental problems like overpopulation; pollution of water, air, and soil; extinction of wildlife; and degradation of natural and human ecosystems are examined, using the science of ecology as a knowledge base.
Corequisites: Concurrent registration in ENS104D is required. Offered: Fall, spring.

ENS104D • Environment Humanity Lab. 1 Credit.

Laboratory experience accompanying ENS104. Includes some outdoor and off-campus investigations.
Corequisites: Concurrent registration in ENS104 is required. Offered: Fall, spring.

ENS201 • Introduction to Geographic Information Systems. 3 Credits.

An introduction to the science, hardware, and software of mapping geographic locations and analyzing information about those locations. Investigation of remote sensing, GPS data collection, GIS data types, editing GIS data, and spatial data analysis and display, with emphasis on applications to creation stewardship problems.
Offered: Fall, odd # years. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in geography.

ENS205L • Sustainable Living. 3 Credits.

A multidisciplinary approach to the challenges of living a sustainable life in a complex world. Considers how ecological, ethical, and cultural understandings inform our responsibility for personal and global decisions.
Prerequisites: GES130 and GES160 (may be taken concurrently) or GES244 (may be taken concurrently). Offered: Spring

ENS305K • Transforming Technology: Environmental Perspectives. 3 Credits.

An examination of the pervasive influence of technology in shaping our views, values, society, and environment. Develops ability to critically analyze technology and the social and environmental influences and impacts of technology. Basic concepts of environmental science serve as a focal point, leading to an understanding of the value-laden nature of technology in our modern society and how such technologies and technological artifacts have changed our environments, our social structures, and our values.
Prerequisites: Laboratory Science (D) course; Mathematics (M) course. Offered: Spring, even # years

ENS310K • Human Impacts on Coral Reefs. 4 Credits.

Travels to the Philippines and Hawaii to study exotic coral reefs and associated environmental issues. Coral reefs worldwide are currently subject to severe anthropogenic stress. Allows ­students to get in the water to see reefs firsthand, to explore the science and human technology relating to coral reefs, and to meet individuals who are working to address environmental problems.
Prerequisites: Laboratory Science (D) course; Mathematics (M) course. Offered: Interim. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in biology and general studies.

ENS316 • Wildlife Ecology and Management. 3 Credits.

Analysis of terrestrial vertebrate populations, communities, and habitats. Exploration of how these analyses are applied to the manipulation, exploitation, protection, and restoration of animal populations and communities.
Prerequisites: Two of BIO122/122D, BIO126/127, ENS104/104D; junior or senior standing. Corequisites: Concurrent registration in ENS317 is required. Offered: Spring, even # years. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in biology.

ENS317 • Wildlife Ecology and Management Lab. 1 Credit.

Laboratory experience accompanying ENS316. Sessions emphasize field investigation of animal populations and habitats with ecological and management techniques.
Corequisites: Concurrent registration in ENS316 is required. Offered: Spring, even # years. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in biology.

ENS318KZ • Ecology in the Tropics: Natural History and Future Prospects. 4 Credits.

Travel in Kenya or Ecuador surveying the land, climate, plans, animals, homes, transportation, and industries, noting especially the impact of human presence. Ecuador includes the Amazon rainforest, Andean cloud forests, volcanic mountains, highlands, towns, cities, and the Galapagos Islands. Kenya includes Nairobi, African savanna, the Rift valley, and Masai Mara.
Prerequisites: Laboratory Science (D) course; Mathematics (M) course. Offered: Interim. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in biology and general studies.

ENS330K • Science, Values, and the Making of Environmental Policy. 3 Credits.

What role do citizens and experts play in the public policy process? Do people approach scientific evidence with competing value perspectives? These questions are examined in order to understand the interplay between key people, institutions, values, and power that is present in a series of environmental policy case studies.
Prerequisites: Laboratory Science (D) course; Mathematics (M) course. Offered: Fall, even # yrs. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in political science.

ENS335K • Environmental Ethics. 3 Credits.

An examination of the intersection of science, society, and technology as it pertains to issues in environmental ethics. The course moves from theory by considering science, society, and technology philosophically, to application by concluding with a major research project on an applied issue in environmental ethics involving scientific data and technological choice.
Prerequisites: Laboratory Science (D) course; Mathematics (M) course. Offered: Fall, interim. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in philosophy.

ENS341K • Environmental Writing. 3 Credits.

As the environmental crisis has deepened, American nature writing has evolved into a richly creative endeavor that explores the complex interactions of nature, technology, and society. Students study environmental writing as a means for valuing biodiversity and for envisioning changes in global policies, applications of technology, and environmental ethics.
Prerequisites: Laboratory Science (D) course; Mathematics (M) course. Offered: Fall or spring. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in English.

ENS399 • Introduction to Research. 1 Credit.

An introduction to research methodology in the biological sciences, with experience in the use of biological literature and an examination of how to distinguish and evaluate different types of scientific writing and presentations. Experience in the development of a research proposal.
Prerequisites: Major in Environmental Studies or Environmental Science; junior standing. Offered: Fall, spring. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in Biology.

ENS481 • Internship in Environmental Studies. 1-4 Credits.

Off-campus field experience working with an environmental organization, business, or governmental agency.
Prerequisites: Major in environmental studies or environmental science. Offered: Fall, spring, summer

ENS496 • Research in Environmental Studies. 1 Credit.

An opportunity to become involved in an independent research project of the student’s own choosing in some area of environmental studies. Experience in the collection, manipulation, analysis, and portrayal of information and development of skills needed to be effective in environmental research.
Prerequisites: ENS399. Offered: Fall, spring

ENS498 • Seminar in Environmental Studies. 1 Credit.

A senior capstone course for environmental studies and environmental science majors centered on a multidisciplinary discussion of current environmental issues in society.
Prerequisites: ENS496. Offered: Spring

ENS499 • Symposium. 0 Credit.

Completion of a scientific paper and oral presentation based upon research conducted in ENS496.
Prerequisites: ENS496. Offered: Fall, spring

ENW100A • Introduction to Creative Writing. 3 Credits.

Exploration of the creative act, addressing writing as a means for discovering the created world and ourselves as created beings within it. Emphasis on writing original work in three major genres: fiction, creative nonfiction, and poetry.
Offered: Fall, occasionally interim, spring.

ENW115 • Reporting I. 3 Credits.

Introduction to fundamentals of reporting and writing for the news media, emphasizing print journalism. Covers news values, news judgment, the structure of news stories, information gathering, research techniques, and Associated Press style. Students learn to write quickly, accurately, and concisely on deadline.
Offered: Fall, spring.

ENW120 • Digital Storytelling. 3 Credits.

Advances the basic techniques of news reporting and writing introduced in ENW115 by developing skills in formats used by professionals. Includes covering at least one beat for The Clarion during the semester, investigating how national and regional stories have local connections, and presenting stories in multimedia.
Prerequisites: ENW115. Offered: Spring

ENW201 • Methods of Tutoring Writing. 1 Credit.

Introduction to the practical applications of writing theory, with a focus on tutoring student writers. Course readings with supervision will guide reflection on the student’s work as a Writing Center tutor.
Offered: Fall, spring. Special Notes: Required of all first-time Writing Center tutors.

ENW205A • Prose Studio. 4 Credits.

Exploration of the great diversity of essay forms with an emphasis on the expository, persuasive, and personal essay.
Prerequisites: GES160 or GES244. Offered: Fall, even # years; spring

ENW211 • Feature Writing. 3 Credits.

Analyzing, writing, and marketing feature stories of various types—service articles, profiles, human-interest pieces, and in-depth issue articles—­for possible publication online or in print.
Prerequisites: ENW115. Offered: Fall, odd # years

ENW214 • Principles of Editing. 4 Credits.

Editing of copy for publication in newspapers, magazines, and online media. Exposure to the book publishing process. Includes working with the Associated Press and Chicago Style manuals.
Offered: Fall.

ENW300A • Writers Workshop. 3 Credits.

Open to students with a well-defined writing project in a genre of their choice (e.g., fiction, nonfiction, poetry, biography, etc.) to be completed by the end of the course. Regular and frequent consultations with instructor and class sessions with peers for critique and encouragement.
Prerequisites: Consent of instructor. Repeatable course: Workshop may be repeated for credit with permission of instructor. Offered: Interim, occasionally fall or spring

ENW303AZ • Travel Writing. 4 Credits.

Art and craft of travel writing are studied and practiced while traveling. Focus on reading travel writing from the past and present, and writing about one’s own travel experience as it is happening. May also include reading literature and other books related to the place of travel.
Offered: Occasionally.

ENW310 • Creative Nonfiction. 4 Credits.

Writing creative nonfiction, including forms such as memoir, personal, short, and lyric essays, and literary journalism, with a focus on literary devices as tools for expressing experience. Emphasis on skills such as development of authentic voice, understanding the relationship between structure and meaning, and cultivating the descriptive power of language.
Prerequisites: ENW205A or ENW211; consent of instructor. Offered: Fall, even # years

ENW312A • Fiction Writing. 4 Credits.

Practice in modern narrative techniques. Emphasis on writing and peer criticism of short fiction.
Offered: Fall, odd # years.

ENW317A • Poetry Writing. 4 Credits.

Metrics, imagery, and other techniques of versification, with practice in writing in a wide variety of genres.
Offered: Spring.

ENW319 • Reporting II. 3 Credits.

Refinement of interviewing, researching, writing, and online publication skills in the development of substantive news stories. Emphasis on news coverage, news gathering, use of public documents, and multiple interview sources in a community context, including selections from small town, suburban, ethnic, and urban neighborhood publications.
Prerequisites: ENW115. Offered: Fall, even # years

ENW330GZ • Media and Communication in Developing Countries. 3 Credits.

An examination of the socioeconomic, technological, and political factors that have influenced the development of communication systems in developing countries, with special emphasis on the role of Christian journalists. Includes comparative analysis of western media systems and those of developing nations.
Prerequisites: [GES130; GES160; Contemporary Western Life and Thought (L) course; World Cultures (U) course] or [GES244; World Cultures (U) course]; junior or senior standing. Offered: Occasionally interim

ENW342 • Journalism for Social Change. 3 Credits.

Study of journalism that promotes causes, with special consideration of journalistic history, standards of objectivity and fairness, and methods of newsgathering and reporting. Taught either as an overview or with a focus on one type of advocacy journalism (such as environmental, religious, or political).
Prerequisites: ENW115. Offered: Spring, even # years

ENW360 • Topics in Journalism. 3 Credits.

Study of a specialized topic of relevance to the practicing journalist with emphasis on the impact of journalism within a specific cultural context and the unique role of the Christian journalist. Spring 2017: "Covering the Arts Study of a specialized topic of relavance to the practicing journalist with emphasis on the impact of journalism within a specific cultural context and the unique role of the Christian journalist.
Prerequisites: Sophomore standing or consent of department chair. Offered: Interim

ENW405 • Publishing and Being Published. 4 Credits.

An advanced class covering practical aspects of literary publishing from an editorial perspective (article selection, editing, layout) and the author’s point of view (query letters, book proposals, contracts, agents). Visits by local writers and editors, as well as visits to publishing houses included.
Prerequisites: ENW213; ENW214; 4 credits in one other writing course. Offered: Occasionally

ENW481 • Internship in Writing. 3-4 Credits.

Placement in an off-campus writing position. Must be planned well in advance of placement in consultation with advisor.
Prerequisites: Major or minor in the Department of English; completion of 10 credit hours in English; consent of instructor. Offered: Offered by arrangement

ENW499 • Senior Seminar in Journalism. 3 Credits.

Analysis of a variety of topics relevant to the practice of journalism with special consideration given to the role of the Christian journalist. Culminates in the completion of a major research project.
Prerequisites: Senior standing; major or minor in journalism; ENL498. Offered: Spring

FLM200 • Introduction to Film. 3 Credits.

How do films construct meaning and in what contexts are they created and interpreted? Consideration of film as both an art form and a cultural product, and focus on film language, history, culture, and criticism.
Offered: Spring.

FLM300 • Film Theory and Interpretation. 4 Credits.

Study of narrative film as a significant art form, including its origins, development, movements, and genres. Both classic and contemporary films will be examined from a wide variety of theoretical perspectives and specific interpretations. Emphasizes the development of analytical skills, writing proficiency, and aesthetic appreciation.
Prerequisites: FLM200; junior standing or consent of instructor. Offered: Spring, even # years

FLM305 • Films of Great Directors. 3 Credits.

Study of representative films by selected directors, emphasizing the director’s distinctive themes and cinematic styles. Considers the role of historical and cultural factors in shaping a director’s artistic vision. Representative filmmakers may include Bergman, Ford, Hitchcock, Kieslowski, Kurosawa, Scorsese, and Truffaut.
Prerequisites: FLM200 or consent of instructor. Offered: Interim

FLM481 • Internship in Film. 3-4 Credits.

Placement in an off-campus position in the film industry or allied fields. Student is responsible for finding and securing the position with an appropriate individual or organization. Plan must be approved in advance of placement by the film studies advisor.
Prerequisites: Completion of six credit hours toward the film studies minor. Offered: By arrangement

FRE101 • Introductory French I. 4 Credits.

Listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Opportunities for oral practice encourage actual communication in French. Use of internet resources familiarizes students with the French-speaking cultures of the world.
Prerequisites: No more than one year of high school French or placement exam. Offered: Fall

FRE102S • Introductory French II. 4 Credits.

Continuation of functional and practical understanding and communicative use of the French language. Further study of French history and culture through films, discussions, and readings.
Prerequisites: FRE101 or placement exam. Offered: Spring

GEL168 • Geology. 3 Credits.

A study of earth's structure and the forces that continue to shape it. The fragility, power, and patience of our geologic environment are considered, as well as land use patterns and decisions. Topics include minerals and rocks, geologic time, earthquakes, volcanoes, plate tectonics, glaciers, weathering and erosion, maps/aerial photos, GPS/GIS, groundwater, mineral resources, and streams.
Corequisites: Registration in GEL168D is required. Offered: Fall.

GEL168D • Geology Lab. 1 Credit.

Laboratory experience accompanying GEL168. Includes two field trips to exposed rock layers and fossil digs.
Corequisites: Registration in GEL168 is required. Offered: Fall.

GEO120 • Introduction to Geography. 3 Credits.

Physical environment including weather, world climates, landforms, and natural vegetation. Humankind's response to geographical variations in terms of the use of land and sea, natural resources, population, economic activity, and political and social organization.
Offered: Fall.

GEO201 • Introduction to Geographic Information Systems. 3 Credits.

An introduction to the science, hardware, and software of mapping geographic locations and analyzing information about those locations. Investigating remote sensing, GPS data collection, GIS data types, editing GIS data, and spatial data analysis and display, with emphasis on applications to creation stewardship problems.
Offered: Fall, odd # years. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in environmental science.

GEO320K • History and the Human Environment. 3 Credits.

Environmental and geographical background of human history. Agriculture, climate, energy resources, transportation, and diseases, especially as they have influenced the historical development of Western Europe and North America. Implications for current and future environmental concerns.
Prerequisites: Laboratory Science (D) course; Mathematics (M) course. Offered: Fall, spring. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in history.

GES101 • Pre-Intercultural Engagement Preparation. 0.5 Credits.

Provides preparation for students who wish to participate in a non-credit experience for fulfillment of the cross-cultural experience (Z) requirement. Faculty guided pre-processing includes introduction to a method of reflection and analysis of the intercultural experience, assistance in creating a proposal for the Z-tag experience, and an opportunity to develop mid-experience exercises and activities to present in GES102Z. Completion of the GES101 does not complete the Z-tag requirement, but is a pre-requisite for GES102Z. GES101 must be taken before participating in the cross-cultural experience. Graded on an S/U basis.

GES102Z • Post-Intercultural Engagement Processing. 0.5 Credits.

Provides the guided post-processing experience necessary for students to benefit fully from a cross-cultural experience. Designed to follow an independent cross-cultural experience to complete the cross-cultural experience (Z) requirements. Includes evaluation of the application of the method of reflection and analysis used during the intercultural experience, evaluation of the implementation of the non-credit proposal approved in GES101, and evaluation of the mid-experience exercises and activities. Prerequisite: GES101. Must be taken the semester following the completion of the independent cross-cultural experience. Graded on an S/U basis.

GES103 • Writing Studio for Multilingual Learners. 1 Credit.

Focuses on knowledge and skills necessary for successful college-level academic research and writing in the U.S. Students will apply reading and writing strategies to other course writing assignments. Instruction tailored to English Language Learners (international or immigrant students from non-English speaking backgrounds). Graded on an S/U basis.

GES108 • Introduction to Life at Bethel. 1 Credit.

Introduces transfer students to a liberal arts education at Bethel as a foundation for scholarship, leadership, and service in a changing world. Together students explore common issues of transition, personal strengths, and community. Students are oriented to resources (i.e., Bethel Library, essential technology, academic tutoring, etc.) to support and enhance the educational experience at Bethel.

GES109 • Orientation to College Studies. 2 Credits.

Students understand and improve their approach to learning to enhance success in college. Strategies developed in this course are directly applied to learning in the Christianity and Western Culture course as well as other courses taken during fall term.
Corequisites: Consent of instructor, enrollment in Christianity and Western Culture (GES130). Offered: Fall.

GES125 • Introduction to the Creative Arts. 4 Credits.

Introduces the creative arts and highlights their crucial role in human experience. Art forms included each semester are chosen from music, visual arts, theatre, dance, literature, or film, and highlight their crucial role in human experience. Creative works spanning stylistic, social, and historical contexts are examined in light of such issues as relationships, religion, death/ despair, and humor. Students experience and critically interact with creative works and reflect on them from a Christian worldview, with the goal of developing literacy in artistic language as a tool for exploration and aesthetic interpretation and evaluation.
Offered: Fall, interim, spring.

GES130 • Christianity & Western Culture. 4 Credits.

Seeks to help students understand the key movements that have influenced the lives of people in Europe and North America up through the Enlightenment. Students explore with insight and empathy the writings and lives of those who have influenced the course of world societies. Prepares students to appreciate and evaluate the diverse ways in which Christians have interacted with Western culture by shaping, absorbing, and criticizing the culture of the West. The Humanities Program .
Offered: Fall, interim, spring.

GES140 • Introduction to Wellbeing. 3 Credits.

Explores many of the dimensions that influence wellbeing: including Spiritual, Cognitive, Emotional, Physical, Relational, and Meaning. Examines the dynamic interconnection between the dimensions. Students integrate foundational knowledge, experiences, and strategies to become successful whole and holy individuals not only in college but also throughout adult life.
Offered: Fall, Spring.

GES145 • Humanities I: Greco-Roman through Middle Ages. 4 Credits.

The first course in the Humanities Program focuses on great writings and works of art, music, and theatre from the Greeks through the Middle Ages. Likely figures for study include Plato, Aristotle, Augustine, Anselm, and Dante.
Offered: Fall.

GES147 • Humanities II: Renaissance and Reformation. 4 Credits.

The second course considers significant figures, movements, and texts in the Renaissance and the Reformation era. Likely figures for study include Luther, Calvin, Erasmus, Anabaptist writers, Renaissance and baroque artists, and Shakespeare.
Prerequisites: GES145. Offered: Interim. Special Notes: Completing GES147 replaces GES125 Introduction to the Creative Arts.

GES160 • Inquiry Seminar. 3 Credits.

While exploring a specific topic of interest, students develop and understand the meaning and value of a liberal arts education in the Christian tradition. The seminar promotes the establishment of community among students, faculty, and varying aspects of student life. The seminar provides students with instruction and practice in writing as well as in preparing and delivering oral presentations. Supplemental assignments and activities outside the traditional classroom are required.
Offered: Fall, Spring.

GES203 • Writing Studio for Multilingual Learners. 1 Credit.

Focuses on knowledge and skills necessary for successful college-level academic research and writing in the U.S. Students will apply reading and writing strategies to other course writing assignments. Instruction tailored to English Language Learners (international or immigrant students from non-English speaking backgrounds). Graded on an S/U basis.

GES208 • Human Sexuality. 3 Credits.

An examination of sexuality through the life cycle, focusing on the nature of sexual and reproductive functioning, sexual self-understanding, sexual dimensions of interpersonal relationships, and ethical dimensions of sexuality.
Offered: Spring.

GES244 • Humanities III: European Enlightenment and American Culture to 1877. 4 Credits.

The third course begins in the European Enlightenment and culminates in a research paper on American culture through the Reconstruction era. Likely figures for study include, Edwards, Bach, Beethoven, Austen, Burke, Paine, The Federalist, de Tocqueville, American Transcendentalist writers, Frederick Douglass, and Abraham Lincoln.
Prerequisites: GES147. Offered: Spring. Special Notes: Completing GES244 replaces GES160 Inquiry Seminar and GES130 Christianity and Western Culture.

GES246 • Humanities IV: Modern and Contemporary Western Culture. 4 Credits.

The final course in the Humanities Program begins with the 19th century Industrial Revolution and ends near the present. It includes a major paper on theology. Likely subjects for study include Marx, Nietzsche, T.S. Eliot, jazz, modern art, Bonhoeffer, and Martin Luther King Jr.
Prerequisites: GES244. Offered: Fall. Special Notes: Completing GES246 replaces THE201 Christian Theology and a Contemporary Western Life and Thought (L) course.

GES302K • Lethal Microbes. 3 Credits.

Despite amazing scientific and technical successes in medicine in the last century, diseases like AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria confront us today with both national and global healthcare crises. Living with the lethal microbes responsible for these diseases requires careful inquiry about these organisms and their wide impact on human society.
Prerequisites: Laboratory Science (D) course; Mathematics (M) course. Offered: Occasionally

GES303K • Genetics, Ethics and the Law. 3 Credits.

Study of the ethical and legal dilemmas created by recent advances in biotechnology. Focus on the question of what direction the law should take, specifically in the areas of patent, family, and criminal law. Exploration of the struggle between the Christian worldview, these rapid changes in science, and society’s resolution of the questions these changes produce.
Prerequisites: Laboratory Science (D) course; Mathematics (M) course. Offered: Occasionally

GES305K • HIV/AIDS:Anatomy of a Pandemic. 3 Credits.

Exploration of the history, biology, and social and global impact of the HIV/AIDS pandemic since discovery of the human immunodeficiency virus in 1983. Evaluation of technological advances that have generated anti-retroviral therapies, technological challenges that have prevented vaccine development, and social factors related to availability of medical treatment.
Prerequisites: Laboratory Science (D) course; Mathematics (M) course. Offered: Occasionally interim

GES306K • Nuclear Energy: Past and Present. 3 Credits.

Basic scientific principles underlying nuclear fission and fusion, along with a survey of the history of nuclear weapons and reactors from 1935 to the present. Topics include weapon construction and design, delivery systems, and nuclear deterrence, along with current arms reduction agreements and waste problems.
Prerequisites: Laboratory Science (D) course; Mathematics (M) course. Offered: Occasionally

GES307K • Natural Resources: Use Them but Don't Lose Them. 3 Credits.

A consideration of the use and management of natural resources and their impact on society and vice versa. Primary resources considered include forests, agricultural land, and geologic/ mineral resources. Global Postitioning System (GPS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) technologies are spotlighted as key management tools.
Prerequisites: Laboratory Science (D) course; Mathematics (M) course. Offered: Spring

GES308K • Genomic Archaeology and Scientific Revolution. 3 Credits.

Advances in DNA technology have led to the sequencing of whole genomes, including the human genome, and to a revolution in science. Questions of this course include: “What is this technology?” “How does it work?” and “What does it mean to you and me?” Applications related to diabetes, cancer, forensics, genetic engineering, and the nature of life itself are discussed.
Prerequisites: Laboratory Science (D) course; Mathematics (M) course. Offered: Occasionally

GES309K • Biology of the Mind. 3 Credits.

Survey of contemporary technologies and studies of brain structure and function and their relation to cognitive abilities and emotion. Introduction to modern technologies of brain mapping such as MRI, PET, and CAT scans. Combines neuroscience, philosophy of self, psychology, linguistics, and sociobiology.
Prerequisites: Laboratory Science (D) course; Mathematics (M) course. Offered: Occasionally interim

GES310K • Human Impacts on Coral Reefs. 3 Credits.

Travels to the Philippines and Hawaii to study exotic coral reefs and associated environmental issues. Coral reefs worldwide are currently subject to severe anthropogenic stress. Allows students to get in the water to see reefs firsthand, to explore the science and human technology relating to coral reefs, and meet individuals who are working to address environmental problems.
Prerequisites: Laboratory Science (D) course; Mathematics (M) course. Offered: Interim. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in biology and environmental studies.

GES311K • Forensics: The Science of Crime. 3 Credits.

An introduction to the roles that biology, chemistry, physics, and psychology play in criminal investigations. Discovery, identification, and comparison of physical evidence using various current techniques. Discussion of the processes and limitations of scientific knowledge.
Prerequisites: Laboratory Science (D) Course; Mathematics (M) course. Offered: Occasionally interim

GES312G • Disability and Society. 3 Credits.

Exploration of ideologies of disability including medical, moral, rehabilitative, and minority approaches. Identification of the social, economic, religious, and other barriers faced by people with disabilities. International perspectives on disability, as well as the concept of a “disability culture.” Experiential learning components included.
Prerequisites: [GES130; Contemporary Western Life and Thought (L) course; World Cultures (U) course] or [GES246; World Cultures (U) course]. Offered: Occasionally interim

GES314K • Stem Cells, Cloning, and Reproductive Technologies. 3 Credits.

Biotechnology, or the production of technology through the manipulation of biological systems, influences many areas of our lives. Applications of biotechnology such as drug production, human cloning, gene therapy, stem cells, reproductive technologies, and their impact on society are examined.
Prerequisites: Laboratory Science (D) course; Mathematics (M) course. Offered: Occasionally

GES315K • Brain Research Technology and Gender Differences. 3 Credits.

A review of gender differences revealed by recent brain mapping and scanning technology. MRI, fMRI, PET, and CAT scans reveal different aspects of brain structure and function. Several other neurologic, hormonal, and genetic technologies will also be reviewed as they relate to physiological and behavioral analysis.
Prerequisites: Laboratory Science (D) course; Mathematics (M) course. Offered: Occasionally interim

GES318KZ • Ecology in the Tropics: Natural History and Future Prospects. 3 Credits.

Travel in Kenya or Ecuador surveying the land, climate, plans, animals, homes, transportation, and industries, noting especially the impact of human presence. Ecuador includes the Amazon rainforest, Andean cloud forests, volcanic mountains, highlands, towns, cities, and the Galapagos Islands. Kenya includes Nairobi, African savanna, the Rift valley, and Masai Mara.
Prerequisites: Laboratory Science (D) course; Mathematics (M) course. Offered: Interim. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in biology and environmental studies.

GES321K • Human Genetics. 3 Credits.

Review of modern genetic history, principles, and technology as applied to humans. Includes discussion of classical Mendelian genetics, probability calculation, pedigree analysis, heritability analysis, and cytogenetics. Emphasis on more recent technologies of gene sequencing, genomics, gene therapy, genetic engineering, screening, early life (embryo) manipulations, and stem cell and cloning risks and benefits, among other issues surrounding human genetics.
Prerequisites: Laboratory Science (D) course; Mathematics (M) course. Offered: Occasionally

GES322K • Cancer: Science and Society. 3 Credits.

The biology of cancer; the technologies of cancer diagnosis and treatment; and some social, family, and personal impacts of this disease.
Prerequisites: Laboratory Science (D) course; Mathematics (M) course. Offered: Interim, spring

GES324K • Greening the Built Environment. 3 Credits.

A study and critique of the “built” environment: our homes, places of work and leisure, transportation systems, and food systems. Development of understanding and commitment for designing, living in, and working in our dwellings and communities in ways that demonstrate stewardship toward the creation.
Prerequisites: Laboratory Science (D) course; Mathematics (M) course. Offered: Occasionally

GES326K • Economic Botany. 3 Credits.

Review of the history, principles, and technology used to domesticate and improve food and beverage crop, lumber, cloth and rope fiber, medicinal, and herbal plants for human use. Emphasis on modern technologies to increase quality, shelf life, transportability, yield, pest resistance, growing season, and soil type tolerances. Includes technologies such as genetic engineering, hybridizing, and breeding that raise ethical issues about their long-term impact on humans, other species, and the environment.
Prerequisites: Laboratory Science (D) course; Mathematics (M) course. Offered: Interim.

GES328K • Nutrition: The Total Diet. 3 Credits.

Investigates the science of interactions between proper nutrition and weight management, and examines the appropriate ethical, and perhaps limited, use of technology as a means to reverse obesity. Topics include how hormonal imbalances and genetic alterations may result in failure to regulate appetite and metabolism.
Prerequisites: Laboratory Science (D) course; Mathematics (M) course. Offered: Occasionally

GES330K • History of Science in Europe. 3 Credits.

Study of scientists and their discoveries throughout history within the context of an experiential learning opportunity in Europe. Astronomy, biology, chemistry, engineering, mathematics, medicine, and physics are addressed. Evaluation of the effect on society of these disciplines (architecture, art, exploration, philosophy, politics, religion, etc.) will also be evaluated.
Prerequisites: Laboratory Science (D) course; Mathematics (M) course. Offered: Occasionally interim

GES331K • Science in the Fifth Dimension. 3 Credits.

An exploration of what science is, what it is not, and how it interacts with its “fifth dimension” (society) in art, politics, technology, culture, medicine, and other aspects of the nonscientific community.
Prerequisites: Laboratory Science (D) course; Mathematics (M) course. Offered: Fall, interim, spring

GES334K • Perspectives on Computing and Society. 3 Credits.

Impact of computing technology on social, economic, and value systems. Evolution of approaches to software development. Consideration of Christian ethics in the development and application of computing technology in various areas of human activity.
Prerequisites: Laboratory Science (D) course; Mathematics (M) course. Students may not receive credit for both GES334K and COS450. Offered: Occasionally

GES336GZ • Building Cross-Cultural and Global Leadership Competence in Hawai'i. 3 Credits.

Synthesizes theories of global competence and leadership, cultural diversity and cross-cultural competence, individualism and collectivism, critical thinking, and emotional intelligence with shalom and community. Examines and compares cultural groups in Hawai’i in social-historical context. Incorporates strategies for cross-cultural self-awareness and assessment with cultural and service learning experiences.
Prerequisites: [GES130; Contemporary Western Life and Thought (L) course; World Cultures (U) course] or [GES246; World Cultures (U) course]. Offered: Occasionally interim

GES338K • Great Controversies in Science and Technology. 3 Credits.

Overview of great scientific controversies past and present. Topics include: science versus religion, age of the earth, evolution and creation, global warming, and energy issues. Relationships between science and society with particular emphasis on discerning the difference among scientific results, popular consensus, and societal pressures.
Prerequisites: Laboratory Science (D) course; Mathematics (M) course. Offered: Interim

GES339K • Nano:Small Science, Big Ideas. 3 Credits.

Investigation of nanotechnology: the science of very small things and their strange, unexpected behavior. Learn why and how nanotechnology is being applied to solve some of our greatest challenges in energy, medicine, and healthcare. Societal and environmental impacts and ethical concerns from a Christian perspective are explored.
Prerequisites: Laboratory Science (D) course; Mathematics (M) course. Offered: Spring

GES340K • Healthcare Informatics: Merging Data, Science, Technology, and Healthcare. 3 Credits.

Investigates how technology supports meaningful use of data in the delivery of healthcare. Explores common disease processes tracked through healthcare information systems. Considers historical, ethical, and regulatory complexities of healthcare informatics as related to the role of consumer, healthcare administrator, insurer, researcher, and healthcare professional.
Prerequisites: Laboratory Science (D) course; Mathematics (M) course. Offered: Spring.

GES341Z • The House of God in the City of the World. 3 Credits.

An exploration of how the church is influenced, expressed, and experienced through social and cultural systems. Develops a level of intercultural competency necessary for understanding Christian communities different from one’s own and for hearing and speaking the gospel with cultural sensitivity.
Offered: Spring.

GES390K • Decision-Making and Medical Technology. 3 Credits.

Health technologies that may be both harmful and beneficial to human health are explored from the perspectives of ethical decision making, psychosocial dynamics, faith, and health policy formation. Topics include genetic testing, contraceptives, intensive treatment of newborns, assisted reproduction organ transplantation, enhancement technologies, aging, and end-of-life decisions.
Prerequisites: Laboratory Science (D) course; Mathematics (M) course. Offered: Occasionally

GES402P • Perspectives on Christian Marriage. 3 Credits.

An analysis of the central issues involved in making a wise decision concerning Christian marriage. Topics include: what the Bible says about marriage; whether or not marriage is for you; family of origin concerns; premarital factors associated with marital stability; and planning for success.
Prerequisites: Senior standing; [GES140; GES160; THE201; Comparative Systems (G) course] or [GES246; Comparative Systems (G) course]. Offered: Yearly, term varies

GES403P • Rage on the Stage: Cultivating Empathy and Imagination. 3 Credits.

Plays, films, and live productions as a springboard for reflection on relevant issues within our society. Discussion and contemplation of contemporary issues that may challenge Christians’ personal or collective convictions. Issues may include dysfunctional behavior, racism, environmental or social concerns, as well as current relevant issues selected by students.
Prerequisites: Senior standing; [GES140; GES160; THE201; Comparative Systems (G) course] or [GES246; Comparative Systems (G) course]. Offered: Occasionally

GES404P • Being Just in an Unjust World. 3 Credits.

Study and practice of moral decision making from psychological, philosophical, and Christian perspectives. Includes analysis of moral sensitivity, judgment, and action; and discussion and exercises designed to develop personal skills in these areas. Focal issues may include friendship, human rights, personal sexuality, power/authority, capital punishment, and current issues selected by students.
Prerequisites: Senior standing; [GES140; GES160; THE201; Comparative Systems (G) course] or [GES246; Comparative Systems (G) course]. Offered: Occasionally

GES405P • Ethical Relationships: Choosing the Good in Family and Community Life. 3 Credits.

Exploration of the ethics of relationships in the context of ethical theory and Christian virtues and norms. Topics include: marriage and divorce; gender; family caregiving; end of life; professional, work, and business relationships; race relations; economic justice; and consumption ethics.
Prerequisites: Senior standing; [GES140; GES160; THE201; Comparative Systems (G) course] or [GES246; Comparative Systems (G) course]. Offered: Occasionally

GES407P • Women's Lives, Women's Choices. 3 Credits.

Female experience during adolescence and adulthood, emphasizing female socialization and potential adult roles. Personal experiences, future life choices, and their consequences in light of the course content and Christian faith.
Prerequisites: Senior standing; [GES140; GES160; THE201; Comparative Systems (G) course] or [GES246; Comparative Systems (G) course]. Offered: Occasionally.

GES409P • Christian Leadership in a Secular World. 3 Credits.

Current issues facing Christian leaders today. The formulation of a personal biblical approach to leadership to enable one to impact society. Involves a variety of personal decisions that are designed to facilitate knowing oneself and understanding one’s own responses in various situations.
Prerequisites: Senior standing; [GES140; GES160; THE201; Comparative Systems (G) course] or [GES246; Comparative Systems (G) course]. Offered: Yearly, term varies

GES410P • Family Life Cycle. 3 Credits.

Study of the stages in the family life cycle, with attention to the factors that cause the family unit to separate during the cycle. Special emphasis on studying one’s own family of origin in light of both Scripture and society’s messages about what family should be. Opportunity to consider preparation for one’s own future family development.
Prerequisites: Senior standing; [GES140; GES160; THE201; Comparative Systems (G) course] or [GES246; Comparative Systems (G) course]. Offered: Yearly, term varies

GES412P • The Plot Thickens: Character Growth in Literature and Life. 3 Credits.

Readings and discussion of a number of novels and short stories, examining characters and their values, and responses in the face of complex life situations. Insights of narrative theologians will be used to think about building character as individuals and the role of the community in this process.
Prerequisites: Senior standing; [GES140; GES160; THE201; Comparative Systems (G) course] or [GES246; Comparative Systems (G) course]. Offered: Occasionally

GES413P • Women's Spiritual Experience. 3 Credits.

Exploration of diverse women’s spiritual experiences by reading spiritual autobiographies, biblical feminist writings, and research on gender and religion. Discussion of how gender influences religious institutions and Christian women’s faith. Students write their own spiritual autobiographies.
Prerequisites: Senior standing; [GES140; GES160; THE201; Comparative Systems (G) course] or [GES246; Comparative Systems (G) course]. Offered: Occasionally

GES414P • The Theology of J.R.R. Tolkien. 3 Credits.

An exploration of the theological issues raised by J.R.R. Tolkien’s “Middle Earth” writings. Theological themes such as evil, salvation, and power will be discussed, with an emphasis placed on choices the characters in the story make with regard to those themes. Attention will also be given to philosophical and literary assumptions/methodologies employed by the author.
Prerequisites: Senior standing; [GES140; GES160; THE201; Comparative Systems (G) course] or [GES246; Comparative Systems (G) course]. Offered: Occasionally

GES416P • Christian Perspectives of Global Peacemaking. 3 Credits.

The dynamics of global peacemaking are drawn from the Christian and biblical perspectives to understand the meaning of peacemaking and how absence of peace affects positive social change. This course, through a service-learning component, explores nonviolent alternatives in addressing social problems such as poverty, hunger, environmental depletion, etc.
Prerequisites: Senior standing; [GES160; THE201; Comparative Systems (G) course] or [GES246; Comparative Systems (G) course]. Offered: Occasionally.

GES418P • Christian Lives: Contemporary Spiritual Narratives. 3 Credits.

Reading, writing, and viewing contemporary spiritual narratives that explore the dimensions of one’s call to the Christian life in the contemporary world. Materials are selected for their spiritual, cultural, and literary value and include both traditional Christian authors (e.g., C.S. Lewis or Dietrich Bonhoeffer) and more recent writers (e.g., Anne Lamott or Lauren Winner).
Prerequisites: Senior standing; [GES160; THE201; Comparative Systems (G) course] or [GES246; Comparative Systems (G) course]. Offered: Occasionally

GES419P • Christian Perspectives on the 20th and 21st Centuries. 3 Credits.

An examination of significant events and trends of the past century in light of Christian values. Topics include the environment, military intervention, immigration, and the place of the federal government in national life. An understanding of diverse Christian responses to such issues in their historical context, and implications of these perspectives for the 21st century.
Prerequisites: Senior standing; [GES140; GES160; THE201; Comparative Systems (G) course] or [GES246; Comparative Systems (G) course]. Offered: Interim

GES420P • Bioethics. 3 Credits.

How technological advances have increased our abilities to conceive, sustain, and alter human lives. How to make morally responsible decisions that shape a just society. Moral issues such as healthcare practices, reproductive methods, allocation of healthcare resources, and biomedical research.
Prerequisites: Senior standing; [GES140; GES160; THE201; Comparative Systems (G) course] or [GES246; Comparative Systems (G) course]. Offered: Fall, spring

GES421P • Social Justice and Christian Responsibility. 3 Credits.

Attempts to understand selected themes of social justice in the United States and the global community. Examines viewpoints of different groups of Christians concerning issues such as the market economy and business, the positive and negative consequences of international trade, the debate about the fairness of public policies in the United States, and the global community. Explores possible actions of concerned and compassionate Christians in collaboration with others to address problems of social injustice.
Prerequisites: Senior standing; [GES140; GES160; THE201; Comparative Systems (G) course] or [GES246; Comparative Systems (G) course]. Offered: Occasionally

GES424P • Christian Perspectives on Creation and Evolution. 3 Credits.

An examination of the positions held by different scientists and Christians in regard to the origins of humans, of the world, and the interpretation of Genesis 1 and 2.
Prerequisites: Senior standing; [GES140; GES160; THE201; Comparative Systems (G) course] or [GES246; Comparative Systems (G) course]. Offered: Occasionally

GES425P • Censorship and Freedom of Expression. 3 Credits.

Censorship from the perspective of various disciplines, such as psychology, theology, literature, history, and art. Key issues and formulation of student’s own positions.
Prerequisites: Senior standing; [GES140; GES160; THE201; Comparative Systems (G) course] or [GES246; Comparative Systems (G) course]. Offered: Occasionally

GES426P • Family Interaction. 3 Credits.

An integration of a Christian worldview related to the contemporary family unit; approaches to conflict, power, stress, intimacy, and wholeness. The family system in light of contemporary trends and Christian choices. Communication patterns are examined and evaluated.
Prerequisites: Senior standing; [GES140; GES160; THE201; Comparative Systems (G) course] or [GES246; Comparative Systems (G) course]. Offered: Fall, spring

GES427P • Christian Responses to Genocide. 3 Credits.

Examination of the nature of genocide and religious terrorism with an emphasis on psychosocial influences in the actions of perpetrators, bystanders, and victims. Discussion of relevant religious and moral issues. Study includes selected major genocides of the 20th and 21st centuries.
Prerequisites: Senior standing; [GES140; GES160; THE201; Comparative Systems (G) course] or [GES246; Comparative Systems (G) course]. Offered: Interim, even # years

GES432P • Christian Responses to Postmodernism. 3 Credits.

Examination of postmodern theory and its effects on culture, with particular focus on various Christian responses to postmodernism. Attention will be paid to the historical development of postmodernism and the ethical and cultural impacts of postmodernism.
Prerequisites: Senior standing; [GES140; GES160; THE201; Comparative Systems (G) course] or [GES246; Comparative Systems (G) course]. Offered: Occasionally

GES433P • Biblical Spirituality: Experiencing God. 3 Credits.

A study of spirituality in a variety of biblical texts, both Old Testament and New Testament. Essential issues related to spirituality will be addressed including: What is spirituality? What are biblical teachings regarding prayer, worship, and spiritual disciplines? How do we interpret biblical texts as guiding paradigms for the contemporary practice of spirituality? .
Prerequisites: Senior standing; [GES140; GES160; THE201; Comparative Systems (G) course] or [GES246; Comparative Systems (G) course]. Offered: Occasionally

GES434P • The Celtic Tradition. 3 Credits.

Development of Celtic Christianity from pre-Christian roots in legends, druids, and dragons to its contemporary renaissance in art, literature, spirituality, and politics, with particular attention to the interplay of faith and the imagination; theology and literature; indigenous beliefs and Christian worship; language; culture; and politics.
Prerequisites: Senior standing; [GES140; GES160; THE201; Comparative Systems (G) course] or [GES246; Comparative Systems (G) course]. Offered: Occasionally interim

GES438P • Christian Music in Context. 3 Credits.

Consideration of the nature and function of Christian music in contemporary society, incorporating a study of its development and place in various historical and cultural contexts, as both an avenue for worship and a force for spiritual development.
Prerequisites: Senior standing; [GES140; GES160; THE201; Comparative Systems (G) course] or [GES246; Comparative Systems (G) course]. Offered: Occasionally

GES440P • Christian Nonviolence. 3 Credits.

What it means to be a Christian peacemaker in today’s world. The biblical mandate, the quest for Christian nonviolence in a historical and biographical context, and its implications for the development of conflict-resolution skills and contemporary public policy issues.
Prerequisites: Senior standing; [GES140; GES160; THE201; Comparative Systems (G) course] or [GES246; Comparative Systems (G) course]. Offered: Yearly, term varies

GES441PZ • Issues and Praxis in Christian Social Justice. 3 Credits.

Examines the theme of justice in the Bible. Explores related themes concerning the history of colonialism, human suffering, the church’s inattention to global injustice, spiritual development in relation to justice advocacy, and Christian social responsibility. Bridges theory and action in the setting of Cambodia with specific attention to human trafficking.
Prerequisites: Senior standing; [GES140; GES160; THE201; Comparative Systems (G) course] or [GES246; Comparative Systems (G) course]. Offered: Interim. Special Notes: All students desiring to take the course must complete an application process. Students who do not meet all of the above requirements may be admitted to the course on a case-by-case basis.

GES442P • Journey from Hell to Heaven. 3 Credits.

Explores the dynamics of spiritual growth in the context of contemporary social, political, and economic choices, through a reflective reading of Dante’s Divine Comedy in its entirety.
Prerequisites: Senior standing; [GES140; GES160; THE201; Comparative Systems (G) course] or [GES246; Comparative Systems (G) course]. Offered: Occasionally

GES444P • Christians and Conflict. 3 Credits.

Examination of how we are called as Christians to respond to interpersonal conflicts that continually exist in our lives. Emphasis on analyzing many different types of interpersonal conflicts, which include conflicts in friendships, marriages, parent/child relationships, workplaces, and churches. Analyzes conflict as it is portrayed in the media, including conflicts that are currently making headlines in the news.
Prerequisites: Senior standing; [GES140; GES160; THE201; Comparative Systems (G) course] or [GES246; Comparative Systems (G) course]. Offered: Fall, interim, spring

GES445P • Aging from a Cross-Cutural Perspective: Living in a Graying World. 3 Credits.

Aging processes and roles of the older person in our society and other cultures. Choices confronting students in their own aging, their relationship to aging parents and friends, and living and operating as Christians in a rapidly aging world.
Prerequisites: Senior standing; [GES140; GES160; THE201; Comparative Systems (G) course] or [GES246; Comparative Systems (G) course]. Offered: Occasionally

GES447PZ • Muslims and Middle Easterners: Past, Present, and Personal. 3 Credits.

An examination of the historical, political, religious, and cultural influences of the Arab peoples of today. Students begin to develop understanding of Arabs and Islam, and initiate communication with Arab and Muslim Americans in Minnesota.
Prerequisites: Senior standing; [GES140; GES160; THE201; Comparative Systems (G) course] or [GES246; Comparative Systems (G) course]. Offered: Occasionally

GES448P • Abusive Relationships and Christian Responsibility. 3 Credits.

Explores different types of intimate violence using research from the fields of communication, psychology, and sociology. Examines the history of domestic violence, the prevalence of intimate violence, the cycles of violence, and the existing secular and Christian response to violence. Consideration and evaluation of choices students may face in light of their Christian values, education, and personal experience. Development of personal strategies regarding perceptions and decisions for responsibility in responding to intimate violence.
Prerequisites: Senior standing; [GES140; GES160; THE201; Comparative Systems (G) course] or [GES246; Comparative Systems (G) course]. Offered: Interim.

GES449P • Chance or Design: Our Place in the Cosmos. 3 Credits.

Exploration of recent advances in Big Bang cosmology and planetary science with an emphasis on apparent fine-tuning to conditions suitable for human life. Discussion of the possibility of extraterrestrial life. Analysis of design arguments, with the goal of developing a biblically sound view of our relationship to nature and God.
Prerequisites: Senior standing; [GES140; GES160; THE201; Comparative Systems (G) course] or [GES246; Comparative Systems (G) course]. Offered: Spring, alternate years

GES450P • Reconciliation in a Racialized Society. 3 Credits.

Study of race, racism, and reconciliation in the United States. Starting from the biblical mandate to be righteous people, a focus on discerning past and present racism, understanding the need for racial justice and reconciliation, appreciating different cultures/ethnicities, and engaging students in the process of racial reconciliation.
Prerequisites: Senior standing; [GES140; GES160; THE201; Comparative Systems (G) course] or [GES246; Comparative Systems (G) course]. Offered: Interim

GES451P • Spirituality, Sexuality, and the Family. 3 Credits.

Three powerful forces in everyday life that vitally affect people both personally and collectively. Both past and contemporary influences and experiences that are likely to impact people as they seek to make their personal sexuality, spirituality, and family relationships consistent with Christian values.
Prerequisites: Senior standing; [GES140; GES160; THE201; Comparative Systems (G) course] or [GES246; Comparative Systems (G) course]. Offered: Fall, Spring

GES452P • Sports in Society. 3 Credits.

Study of sports as a social phenomenon. Presentation of some of the basic elements involved in the interaction of the active human being. Includes sports and culture, sports in education, social stratification, race, and group dynamics.
Prerequisites: Senior standing; [GES140; GES160; THE201; Comparative Systems (G) course] or [GES246; Comparative Systems (G) course]. Offered: Occasionally

GES453P • Ethics and Faith in the Workplace. 3 Credits.

Practical application of what it takes to function as a Christian in today’s workplace. Emphasis on the transition from college to a professional environment, focusing on personal maturity, workplace ethics, and lifelong Christian growth and service.
Prerequisites: Senior standing; [GES140; GES160; THE201; Comparative Systems (G) course] or [GES246; Comparative Systems (G) course]. Offered: Occasionally interim

GES455P • Covenant Relationships: Marriage, Friendship, and Beyond. 3 Credits.

An exploration of the relational dynamics of marriage, friendship, and Christian community within the context of the biblical concept of covenant relationship. Competing values within contemporary Western culture (e.g., individualism, hedonism) are explored and critiqued in light of the values associated with covenant community.
Prerequisites: Senior standing; [GES140; GES160; THE201; Comparative Systems (G) course] or [GES246; Comparative Systems (G) course]. Offered: Occasionally.

GES456P • What Good is Leisure? Living the Rest of Your Life. 3 Credits.

Examination of five ways that individuals and cultures have regarded time outside of work and family responsibilities. Study of time devoted to religious exercise, liberal arts education, social responsibilities, respite from labor, and recreation. Emphasis on exploring personal alternatives and experiential learning. Readings from philosophy, literature, anthropology, theology, and contemplative traditions.
Prerequisites: Senior standing; [GES140; GES160; THE201; Comparative Systems (G) course] or [GES246; Comparative Systems (G) course]. Offered: Spring

GES460P • Christian Commitment in a Secular Age: Liberalism and Conservatism. 3 Credits.

Despite the appeal of the cliché, “I don’t like labels; they simply put people in boxes,” many of our responses to culture—literary, political, and religious—are broadly “conservative” or “liberal.” Examines a range of issues and texts to determine the sources of liberalism and conservatism and their relation to biblical Christianity.
Prerequisites: Senior standing; [GES140; GES160; THE201; Comparative Systems (G) course] or [GES246; Comparative Systems (G) course]. Offered: Occasionally

GES461P • Anthropology of Tourism: Travel, Culture Change and Globalization. 3 Credits.

Uses the lens of anthropology to explore the nature, development, and impact of various forms of travel as well as their relationships with culture change and globalization. Approaches tourism not only as an important human activity and a modern industry, but also an area of creating new cultural hegemony, economic dependency, and identity crisis. Challenges students to evaluate benefits and costs of travel and tourism in light of Christian ethics and values.
Prerequisites: Senior standing; [GES140; GES160; THE201; Comparative Systems (G) course] or [GES246; Comparative Systems (G) course]. Offered: Fall, even # years

GES462P • The Arts, Meaning, and the Sacred. 3 Credits.

Explores how our complex “culture of representations” interacts with belief, meaning, and understanding the sacred. Emphasizes learning to read “contemplatively” as both personal and community action. Develops deep literacy for visual, media, and literary “texts,” including art, short story, TV advertising, creative nonfiction, and essays in aesthetics, philosophy, and theology.
Prerequisites: Senior standing; [GES140; GES160; THE201; Comparative Systems (G) course] or [GES246; Comparative Systems (G) course]. Offered: Occasionally

GES463P • Masculinity Past and Present. 3 Credits.

Study of how men have understood their identities as men in different historical contexts, including the present. While strength, individuality, and aggression may seem paramount, many societies have emphasized moral ideas like piety, cooperation, and self-control. Encourages critical evaluation of how gender helps construct personal identity.
Prerequisites: Senior standing; [GES140; GES160; THE201; Comparative Systems (G) course] or [GES246; Comparative Systems (G) course]. Offered: Spring

GRK101 • Introductory Biblical Greek I. 4 Credits.

Study of New Testament Greek for beginning students. Use of the New Testament to build a basic vocabulary and understand the elements of grammar and syntax.
Offered: Fall.

GRK102S • Introductory Biblical Greek II. 4 Credits.

Continuation of the study of New Testament Greek for beginning students. Use of the New Testament to build a basic vocabulary and understand the elements of grammar and syntax.
Prerequisites: GRK101. Offered: Spring

GRK253 • Readings in New Testament Greek. 3 Credits.

Readings in the Greek New Testament designed to develop the student’s basic knowledge of Greek grammar and enlarge his or her vocabulary.
Prerequisites: GRK102S. Offered: Fall

GRK371 • Advanced Greek Translation. 3 Credits.

Translation and analysis of Greek passages, both biblical and classical, of moderate to considerable difficulty. Specific subject matter varies each term.
Prerequisites: GRK253. Offered: Spring

GRK498 • Seminar: Greek Exegesis. 4 Credits.

Study of a selected book or representative passages in the Greek New Testament to increase the student’s exegetical skills. A major exegetical project is followed by an oral and written presentation of the results.
Prerequisites: GRK253; Interpreting Biblical Themes (J) course; BIB321 or consent of instructor. Offered: Spring

HAS110 • Introduction to Healthcare and Health Professions. 3 Credits.

An introduction to various health professions and the healthcare system in the United States. Emphasis on understanding the healthcare system, current issues in healthcare, and healthcare career paths. Development of health care literacy and navigating healthcare culture. Students examine education, training, and licensure and/or certification requirements for potential careers.
Offered: Spring.

HAS120 • First Aid. 1 Credit.

Emphasizes the citizen responder as the first link in the emergency medical services system through the American Red Cross First Aid course. Includes CPR/AED for the Professional Rescuer.
Offered: Fall, spring.

HAS130 • Personal and Community Health. 3 Credits.

Focus on health promotion and the development of skills to make informed lifestyle decisions. Examination of current information on major health issues including exercise, nutrition, stress, tobacco/alcohol/drug use, mental health, sexual health, environmental health, and disease. Emphasis on the importance of becoming an advocate for personal, family, and community health.
Offered: Fall, spring.

HAS170 • Applied Nutrition. 3 Credits.

Effects of nutrition on health, human performance and reduction of chronic disease throughout the lifespan. Topics covered also include disordered eating, weight management, supplements, and societal and cultural issues related to nutrition.
Offered: Fall, Interim, Spring.

HAS200Q • Professional Activities: Individual/Dual. 4 Credits.

Developmental progressions to improve personal skill through instruction, practice, and corrective feedback. Exposure to various teaching methods while participating in individual and dual sports that include badminton, golf, tumbling, tennis, and track and field. Students lacking competency in lifetime activities are encouraged or required (at discretion of the department) to take one or more separate Q courses to meet competency.
Prerequisites: Sophomore class standing or consent of instructor. Offered: Fall

HAS201 • Foundations of Physical Education. 2 Credits.

An examination of the historical, philosophical, sociological, and psychological foundations of physical education from its earliest beginnings through the 20th century. Development of a philosophical base for physical education and study of specific issues, trends, and professional opportunities related to physical education and sport.
Offered: Fall.

HAS205QA • Self-expression through Dance. 2 Credits.

Provides students with opportunities to experience a wide variety of rhythmic movement and dance to enhance creative expression, fitness development, and understanding of, and appreciation for, a variety of dance forms. Students think and move creatively and develop rhythmic skills through participation in aerobic dance, square dance, ethnic dance, and ballroom dance.
Offered: Occasionally.

HAS210Q • Professional Activities: Team. 3 Credits.

Development of usable progressions and methods for teaching the skills involved in team sports. Emphasis on personal skill practice, with attention to motivation, feedback, and other concepts of motor learning. Sports include flag football, soccer, volleyball, basketball, team handball, and softball. Students lacking in competency in lifetime activities are encouraged to required (at discretion of the department) to take one or more separate Q courses to meet competency.
Prerequisites: Sophomore class standing or consent of instructor. Offered: Spring

HAS215Q • Professional Activities: Conditioning. 2 Credits.

Developmental progressions to improve personal skill through instruction, practice, and corrective feedback. Exposure to various teaching methods while participating in swimming, weight training, and aerobic exercise. Students lacking competency in lifetime activities are encouraged or required (at discretion of the department) to take one or more separate Q courses to meet competency. PR: Sophomore class standing or consent of instructor.
Offered: Fall.

HAS220A • Educational Rhythms. 3 Credits.

Principles of teaching rhythmic movement, emphasizing aspects of creativity, square dance, social dance, rhythms with equipment, and ethnic dances from various countries. Includes practice and incorporation of skills into multiple teaching situations.
Prerequisites: Sophomore class standing or consent of instructor. Offered: Spring, even # years

HAS247 • Motor Development and Learning. 3 Credits.

The mechanisms of human motor learning and development with special emphasis on the physical and psychological principles involved in the acquisition and maintenance of motor skills.
Prerequisites: BIO214/BIO215. Offered: Fall, spring

HAS250M • Statistics and Research Methods in Applied Health Sciences. 3 Credits.

Research planning, structuring, administering, and evaluating health, physical activity, and rehabilitative science protocols for healthy and special populations using parametric and nonparametric statistical techniques (descriptive, correlational, and inferential statistics). The research proposal developed in this course may be utilized for data collection and presentation in future coursework.
Offered: Fall, spring.

HAS261 • Theory and Practice of Coaching. 4 Credits.

Theoretical and practical aspects of coaching. Topics include coaching philosophy, game and practice management, drill design, player and coach relationships, and psychological and sociological aspects of sport and/or coaching.
Offered: Spring.

HAS262 • Coaching of Baseball. 1 Credit.

Advanced skills, strategy, techniques, and coaching philosophy of baseball.
Offered: Spring, odd # years. Special Notes: Recommended for students seeking the coaching minor.

HAS263 • Coaching of Basketball. 1 Credit.

Advanced skills, strategy, techniques, and coaching philosophy of basketball.
Offered: Fall, odd # years. Special Notes: Recommended for students seeking the coaching minor.

HAS264 • Coaching of Football. 1 Credit.

Advanced skills, strategy, techniques, and coaching philosophy of football. Basic terminology and position nomenclature for the introduction to coaching football.
Offered: Spring, even # years. Special Notes: Recommended for students seeking the coaching minor.

HAS265 • Coaching of Hockey. 1 Credit.

Advanced skills, strategy, techniques, and coaching philosophy of hockey.
Offered: Spring, even # years. Special Notes: Recommended for students seeking the coaching minor.

HAS266 • Coaching of Track and Field. 1 Credit.

Advanced skills, strategy, techniques, and coaching philosophy of track and field.
Offered: Fall, even # years. Special Notes: Recommended for students seeking the coaching minor.

HAS267 • Coaching of Volleyball. 1 Credit.

Advanced skills, strategy, techniques, and coaching philosophy of volleyball.
Offered: Fall, even # years. Special Notes: Recommended for students seeking the coaching minor.

HAS268 • Coaching of Fastpitch Softball. 1 Credit.

Advanced skills, strategy, techniques, and coaching philosophy of softball.
Offered: Occasionally. Special Notes: Recommended for students seeking the coaching minor.

HAS269 • Coaching of Soccer. 1 Credit.

Fundamental and advanced technical skills for coaching various age levels. Team tactics and concepts of different ability levels as well as development of a personal coaching philosophy.
Offered: Fall, even # years. Special Notes: Recommended for students seeking the coaching minor.

HAS279 • Introduction to Athletic Training. 2 Credits.

An introduction to athletic training combining didactic and clinical learning experiences. Provides a basic understanding and working knowledge of athletic training room policies and procedures. Students begin completing clinical proficiencies in preparation for the clinical education program. Topics includ; NATA history, professional organizations, injury management, therapeutic modalities, and basic pharmacology.
Prerequisites: Sophomore class standing or consent of instructor. Offered: Fall

HAS303KZ • Integrative Medicine in a Cross-Cultural Setting. 3 Credits.

An introduction to the theories and practices of integrative medicine as a means to promote quality health and wellness. Students in this course are exposed to a variety of health models ranging from ancient Mayan practices to modern Western medical practices in order to develop a more holistic approach to health and well-being. Course is taught in Belize, Central America. Scientific theories include ethnobotany, psychoneuroimmunology, integrative nutrition, and biofeedback. Personal practices may include therapeutic touch, yoga, mindfulness, contemplative prayer, nature therapy, and healing effects of physical activity and movement.
Prerequisites: Laboratory Science (D) course; Mathematics (M) course. Offered: Occasionally interim

HAS306 • Administration of Athletics and Physical Education. 2 Credits.

Theories, procedures, and problems involved in the administration of athletic and physical education programs at the interscholastic level and in fitness organizations.
Offered: Fall, odd # years.

HAS314 • Foundations, Administration, and Evaluation of Health Education. 3 Credits.

Introduces the health education and health promotion professions, including historical, philosophical, and theoretical foundations of health education. Explores theories of behavior change, the responsibilities of health educators, and investigates career opportunities. Examines the theoretical and practical basis for planning, implementing, administering, and evaluating health education programs.
Prerequisites: HAS130. Offered: Spring

HAS316 • Curriculum Development in Physical Education. 3 Credits.

Curriculum theory, history, and philosophy. Procedures for translating theory into workable models for physical education, grades K–12, and non-school settings. Writing unit and lesson plans to reflect sequencing of content that differentiates across a range of students' developmental levels.
Prerequisites: Sophomore standing. Offered: Spring, odd # years

HAS318 • Epidemiology. 2 Credits.

Study of distribution of health and disease in populations and its influential or determining factors. Examination of methodological and analytical techniques to summarize health-related indicators in populations. Focus on the tools and epidemiologic methods used to identify, prevent, and control disease and health-related conditions. Review of the epidemiology of many major diseases and health-related conditions.
Prerequisites: HAS130; BIO104/104D or BIO122/122D; BIO238/239 or both BIO214/215 and BIO216/217. Offered: Fall, even # years

HAS320 • Developmental and Adapted Physical Education. 3 Credits.

Developmental, remedial, and corrective means to meet the needs of special students in grades K-12 and non-school settings. Emphasis on underlying principles of perceptual and motor development, and use of principles in programming for a variety of disabilities.
Offered: Spring, odd # years.

HAS321 • Developmental and Adapted Field Experience. 1 Credit.

Application of ideas from HAS320 in a 32-hour field experience with hours dispersed between school and community settings.
Prerequisites: Sophomore standing. Corequisites: Should be taken concurrently with HAS320, but may be taken in a different term if necessary. Offered: Spring, odd # years. Special Notes: Times and locations are established by the HAS320 instructor.

HAS322 • Methods and Materials for Adapted Physical Activity. 2 Credits.

Resources and methodology for teaching a wide variety of activities to individuals with disabilities. Resources include understanding of DAPE literature, family systems, and community services as they relate to the transition process. Methodology includes planning lessons, incorporating assistive devices, and utilizing assessment tools.
Prerequisites: EDU250 or HAS320. Offered: Fall, odd # years

HAS323 • Developmental and Adapted Physical Education Practicum. 2 Credits.

Practical experience working alongside licensed professionals in the field to deliver services to special education students in their least restrictive and/or integrated environments. Students gain experience planning, leading, and assessing activities relative to IEP goals, and reflecting on their effectiveness.
Prerequisites: EDU250 or HAS320. Offered: Fall

HAS325 • Prevention and Care of Athletic Injuries. 3 Credits.

Techniques for prevention and care of athletic injuries. Practical experience in the athletic training room.
Prerequisites: HAS120; BIO214/215 or BIO238/239. Offered: Spring

HAS331 • Organization and Administration of Athletic Training. 3 Credits.

Methods for planning, coordinating, and supervising all administrative components of an athletic training program pertaining to healthcare, financial management, training room management, personnel management, and public relations.
Prerequisites: HAS325. Offered: Fall

HAS332 • Advanced Athletic Training - Lower Extremity. 3 Credits.

Advanced techniques for the evaluation and treatment of athletic injuries to the lower extremity.
Prerequisites: HAS325; BIO214/215; BIO216/217. Offered: Fall

HAS333 • Advanced Athletic Training - Upper Extremity. 3 Credits.

Advanced techniques for the evaluation and treatment of athletic injuries to the upper extremity.
Prerequisites: HAS325; BIO214/215; BIO216/217. Offered: Spring

HAS335 • Clinical Experience in Athletic Training I. 1 Credit.

Clinical experiences that provide opportunities to practice, refine, and master previously learned psychomotor and cognitive athletic training competencies.
Prerequisites: Admission to athletic training program; HAS325. Offered: Fall

HAS336 • Clinical Experience in Athletic Training II. 1 Credit.

Clinical experiences that provide opportunities to practice, refine, and master previously learned psychomotor and cognitive athletic training skills.
Prerequisites: HAS335. Offered: Interim

HAS337 • Clinical Experience in Athletic Training III. 1 Credit.

Clinical experiences that provide opportunities to practice, refine, and master previously learned psychomotor and cognitive athletic training competencies.
Prerequisites: HAS336. Offered: Spring

HAS340 • School Health and Drug Issues. 3 Credits.

Examines the roles of teachers and schools in responding to adolescent health problems, with particular attention to health promotion, prevention, and referral, and to the unique role of the school health educator in this process. Topics include alcohol/drug use and abuse, mental health issues, eating disorders, violence, child abuse and neglect, and injuries. Emphasis on the characteristics of effective coordinated school health programs, including the development of comprehensive prevention curriculum.
Offered: Spring.

HAS345 • Disease and Injury Control. 2 Credits.

Analysis of chronic diseases, infectious diseases, and injuries from both personal and societal perspectives. Focuses on the prevention, identification, and control of diseases and injuries. Examines the relationship of health promotion and lifestyle to disease and injury.
Prerequisites: HAS120; HAS130. Offered: Fall, odd # years

HAS351 • Therapeutic Interventions I. 3 Credits.

Various therapeutic modalities used in the treatment of sport-related injuries. Includes the use of thermal, electrical, light, and acoustical media as modalities for therapy. The physiological effects, clinical applications, and techniques for use are discussed for each modality. Includes practical experience.
Prerequisites: HAS325 or BIO214/215. Offered: Fall

HAS352 • Therapeutic Interventions II. 3 Credits.

Design, implementation, and supervision of rehabilitation programs for sport-related injuries. Topics include reconditioning programs, manual therapy, and functional rehabilitation. Includes laboratory experience in the various techniques used in therapeutic exercise.
Prerequisites: HAS325 or HAS375. Offered: Spring

HAS360 • Advanced Emergency Care. 3 Credits.

A comprehensive course for the healthcare practitioner who must initially evaluate and stabilize a physically active individual in a trauma situation. Teaches rapid assessment, resuscitation, packaging, and transportation of the ill or injured.
Prerequisites: HAS325 or HAS120. Offered: Spring

HAS370 • Functional Human Nutrition. 3 Credits.

Prepares students in functional nutrition, emphasizing human biochemistry and cellular energetics. Explores the relationship of nutrients to health pathologies, including metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. Practical experience with nutritional interventions for health optimization and disease management. Emphasis in biochemical individuality for positive, nutritional modulation in oxidative phyosphorylation.
Prerequisites: HAS247. Offered: Fall, Spring

HAS375 • Biomechanics. 3 Credits.

Mechanics of sports performance and anatomical kinesiology. Newtonian mechanics, types of motion, application of force, maintenance of equilibrium, and fluid dynamics.
Prerequisites: BIO214/215 or BIO238/239; Mathematics (M) course. PHY102/102D and HAS247 recommended. Offered: Fall, spring

HAS376 • Exercise Physiology and Assessment. 3 Credits.

Basic principles of measurement and evaluation, particularly as they relate to physiological training and adaptation in the context of physical education instruction for normal and special populations.
Prerequisites: BIO238/239. Offered: Fall

HAS379 • Integrative Human Physiology. 3 Credits.

Examination of how normal human physiological function (homeostasis) is altered, and subsequently restored, in response to various forms of acute and chronic stress.
Prerequisites: BIO214/215; BIO216/217. Offered: Fall, spring

HAS386 • Pathology and Medical Cond. 3 Credits.

The study of physiological responses of human growth and development and the progression of injuries, illnesses, and diseases. Included is the recognition, treatment, and appropriate referral for general medical conditions and disabilities of athletes and others involved in physical activity.
Prerequisites: BIO214/215 and BIO216/217 or equivalent. Offered: Fall

HAS393 • Literature Review in Biokinetics. 1 Credit.

Students develop and work on their research project and IRB. Students will use literature to formulate an independent project. Completion of IRB is expected. Seminar includes discussions of careers, graduate and medical school application and entrance examines.
Corequisites: Concurrent registration in HAS399. Offered: Spring.

HAS398 • Physiological Assessment Laboratory. 1 Credit.

Laboratory experience accompanying HAS399.
Prerequisites: HAS379, may be concurrent Corequisites: Concurrent registration in HAS393 and HAS399 is required. Offered: Spring

HAS399 • Physiological Assessment. 3 Credits.

Applied techniques in the measurement of exercise bioenergetics, neuromuscular performance, cardiorespiratory fitness, and other health components. Particular emphasis is given to the knowledge necessary for exercise testing certifications and development of fitness testing skills.
Prerequisites: HAS379 (may be taken concurrently). Corequisites: Concurrent registration in HAS393 and HAS398 is required. Offered: Spring

HAS420 • Athletic Coaching Practicum. 2 Credits.

A practical coaching experience in an off-campus setting, applying knowledge and skill proficiency under dual supervision of a professional coach at Bethel and an on-site professional coach. Designed by the student in consultation with a staff or faculty person.
Prerequisites: Minor in athletic coaching; senior standing or consent of instructor. Offered: Fall, interim, spring

HAS436 • Clinical Experience in Athletic Training IV. 1 Credit.

Clinical experiences at an off-campus clinical affiliate site designed to provide athletic training students the opportunity to practice, refine, and master previously learned psychomotor and cognitive athletic training competencies.
Prerequisites: HAS337; senior standing. Offered: Fall, interim, spring

HAS439 • Clinical Experience in Athletic Training V. 3 Credits.

Acquire 320+ hours of athletic training experience working with a Bethel University athletic team for a complete season of competition, under the supervision of an athletic training program preceptor.
Prerequisites: HAS337. Offered: Fall, interim, spring

HAS440 • Advanced Training for Human Performance. 3 Credits.

Prepares students to systematically design training and conditioning programs to enhance the function and capacity of the musculoskelital and cardiovascular systems. This courses utilizes periodization and mathematical models with expected physiological and neuromuscular adaptions to maximize human performance in sport, pre-habilitation, public health and special populations.
Prerequisites: BIO216/217, BIO238/239, or permission of instructor. Offered: Fall

HAS445 • Advanced Laboratory Techniques in Biokinetics. 3 Credits.

Collection, interpretation, and prescription of human subjects data will be conducted. Activities focus on how to work in a dynamic laboratory and refine and master previously learned assessment skills.
Prerequisites: HAS399. Offered: Fall

HAS450 • Physiology and Interventions in Disabilities and Chronic Disease. 3 Credits.

Examination of the physiology of various diseases and how exercise is used as a therapeutic regimen to prevent or often reverse disease pathology. Interactions of lifestyle modification, exercise, and medications are examined. Advanced electrocardiogram (ECG) recognition and testing are addressed.
Prerequisites: HAS399. Offered: Fall, spring

HAS453 • Therapeutic Interventions III. 3 Credits.

A broad range of therapeutic interventions including pharmacology, psychosocial strategies, and appropriate referral methods are incorporated into this course. Interventions are designed to enhance function by identifying, mediating, and preventing impairments and activity restrictions to maximize participation.
Prerequisites: PSY100. Offered: Fall

HAS478 • Senior Seminar in Athletic Training. 3 Credits.

A capstone course in which students study and implement competencies in professional development and responsibility, as well as evidence-based medicine. Students complete and present an in-depth, evidence-based medicine research project. Aids student preparation for the Board of Certification Exam in Athletic Training.
Prerequisites: Admission to the athletic training education program. Offered: Spring

HAS481 • Internship in Human Kinetics and Applied Health Science. 3-4 Credits.

A practical experience in an off-campus setting in applying academic knowledge and professional skills under the dual supervision of a faculty member and a practicing professional. Designed by student in consultation with a faculty member.
Prerequisites: Major in biokinetics. (Biokinetics students: HAS399 or consent of instructor.) Offered: Fall, spring. Special Notes: Application must be made at least one semester prior to the intended experience.

HAS494 • Biokinetics Research. 1 Credit.

Students develop and work on their senior research project. Students will complete data collection. Students will continue the discussion on "life after Bethel." In addition, social networking and public speaking and presentations will be explored.
Prerequisites: HAS393. Offered: Fall

HAS495 • Biokinetics Symposium. 1 Credit.

Students prepare and deliver formal presnetation and manuscripts of their research results. Weekly discussions are organized on current research topics. This course will continue the discussion of "life after Bethel." .
Prerequisites: HAS494. Offered: Spring

HEB101 • Introductory Biblical Hebrew I. 4 Credits.

Study of the Hebrew of the Old Testament. Designed for the beginning student. The Old Testament is used to build a basic vocabulary and to understand the language’s phonology, morphology, basic syntax, and semantics.
Offered: Fall.

HEB102S • Introductory Biblical Hebrew II. 4 Credits.

Further study of the Hebrew of the Old Testament. Designed for the beginning student. The Old Testament is used to build a basic vocabulary and to understand the language’s phonology, morphology, basic syntax, and semantics.
Prerequisites: HEB101. Offered: Spring

HIS200L • American Civilization. 3 Credits.

An exploration ofAmerican history from early Native American communities to the present. Examination of major social, cultural, economic, political, and religious change over time in the American experience.
Prerequisites: GES130 and GES160 (may be taken concurrently) or GES244 (may be taken concurrently). Offered: Fall, spring

HIS204U • African Civilizations. 3 Credits.

The peoples and cultures of Africa. African social structures, religions, government, warfare, technology, and the arts. Traditional African societies, the impact of Western colonialism, the rise of nationalism, and contemporary issues.
Prerequisites: GES130 (may be taken concurrently) or GES244 (may be taken concurrently). Offered: Occasionally

HIS205U • History of China, Japan, and Korea. 3 Credits.

History and cultures of East Asia. Religion; economic development and trade; and family, social, and political organization. Primary focus on China, Korea, and Japan.
Prerequisites: GES130 (may be taken concurrently) or GES244 (may be taken concurrently). Offered: Spring

HIS206U • History of India and Its Neighbors. 3 Credits.

History of cultures and societies of South Asia. Religion; economic development and trade; and family, social, and political organization of India and its neighbors.
Prerequisites: GES130 (may be taken concurrently) or GES244 (may be taken concurrently). Offered: Occasionally

HIS207U • Latin American Civilizations. 3 Credits.

History of cultures and societies of Latin America. Social, religious, geographic, economic, and political history. The Americas before European contact (with emphasis on Mexico and Central and South America), impact of European conquest and colonization, struggles for independence and national and regional identity, relations with the United States, and Latin America’s place in the global economy.
Prerequisites: GES130 (may be taken concurrently) or GES244 (may be taken concurrently). Offered: Spring

HIS209L • Christianity in America. 3 Credits.

Christianity as a vital factor in North American history and life. Develops an understanding of the European Reformations, the Enlightenment, and other modern developments as factors interacting with Christianity in various aspects of North American culture from colonial times to the present. Exploration of Christian responses to issues such as democracy, imperialism, slavery, secularism, industrialization, materialism, communism, civil rights, pluralism, war, globalization, and technology.
Prerequisites: GES130 and GES160 (may be taken concurrently) or GES244 (may be taken concurrently). Offered: Occasionally

HIS210U • Minorities in America. 3 Credits.

History of multicultural America from the colonial period to the present through a case approach. Focuses on one of the following cultures: Native American, African American, Asian, Hispanic, Jewish American, or Muslim. Examination of themes such as family, society, arts, education, work, slavery, discrimination, immigration-assimilation, democracy, social justice, the role of religion, and women’s concerns as they are experienced by various minority groups.
Prerequisites: GES130 (may be taken concurrently) or GES244 (may be taken concurrently). Offered: Fall, odd # years

HIS212U • History of Islam. 3 Credits.

Introduces the religion of Islam from its inception and development to Islam as it is practiced worldwide today. Students interact with members of the Islamic community in Minnesota in an attempt to understand Islam from the personal experiences of Muslims. Contemporary issues and controversies are examined through the lens of the Muslim experience throughout history.
Prerequisites: GES130 (may be taken concurrently) or GES244 (may be taken concurrently). Offered: Spring. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in religious studies.

HIS216L • American Constitutional History. 3 Credits.

Examination of the origins and development of American constitutional ideas and institutions from the colonial period to the present. Particular attention paid to the historical connections between major constitutional cases and broader social, political, economic, and cultural trends.
Prerequisites: GES130 and GES160 (may be taken concurrently) or GES244 (may be taken concurrently). Offered: Spring. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in political science.

HIS217UZ • Hispanic Christianity. 3 Credits.

Hispanic Christianity in Latin America and the United States with focus from the 19th century to date. Colonialism to modernity and new nations; Protestantism from mainlines to grassroots movements; responses to issues such as civil rights, liberation, race, gender, immigration, poverty, and education; diversity of Hispanic theologies, missions, and ministries. Includes significant personal intercultural engagement and service learning with an assigned local Hispanic church or faith-based community service organization.
Prerequisites: GES130 (may be taken concurrently) or GES244 (may be taken concurrently). Offered: Fall, even # years. Special Notes: Spanish language not a requirement.

HIS221L • Making of Minnesota. 3 Credits.

Examination of the historical development of Minnesota up to the present with a social and economic focus: immigration, use and abuse of natural resources, populist politics, intergroup relations, and Minnesota’s impact on the nation.
Prerequisites: GES130 and GES160 (may be taken concurrently) or GES244 (may be taken concurrently). Offered:Occasionally

HIS223L • History of the American West. 3 Credits.

An examination of the history of the American West from 1492 to the present. Particular attention to the interaction and competition of different cultures; the construction of political, economic, and religious institutions; and the physical environment, its representations, and its symbolic importance in the broader context of American history.
Prerequisites: GES130 and GES160 (may be taken concurrently) or GES244 (may be taken concurrently). Offered: Interim, odd # years

HIS230L • World War I. 3 Credits.

An experiential study of the history of the First World War built around travel in England, Belgium, France, and Germany, including visits to battlefield sites, cemeteries, memorials, and museums. Students will learn what it was like to experience and remember total war and to appreciate this particular conflict’s larger significance for American and European culture.
Prerequisites: GES130 and GES160 (may be taken concurrently) or GES244 (may be taken concurrently). Offered: Interim, odd # years

HIS231L • World War II. 3 Credits.

The causes, course, conclusion, and legacy of World War II, particularly as experienced by the people of China, France, Germany, Great Britain, Japan, Russia, and the United States. Key topics include collaboration and resistance, genocide, the war in film, remembrance and forgetting, and the social and economic impacts of the war.
Prerequisites: GES130 and GES160 (may be taken concurrently) or GES244 (may be taken concurrently). Offered: Interim, even # years

HIS241L • Revolution and Political Development. 3 Credits.

Theory and process of modernization, with special emphasis on the Anglo-American historical experience; examinations of U.S. efforts to promote democracy internationally in Europe, Asia, and the Middle East since World War II.
Prerequisites: GES130 and GES160 (may be taken concurrently) or GES244 (may be taken concurrently). Offered: Interim. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in political science.

HIS245L • History of Women in America. 3 Credits.

Discussion of “What does it mean to be an American woman?” Historical experiences of American women cutting across race, class, and ethnicity are used to examine gender, citizenship, and the meaning of political, social, and cultural history for women and men.
Prerequisites: GES130 and GES160 (may be taken concurrently) or GES244 (may be taken concurrently). Offered: Fall

HIS290 • Introduction to History. 3 Credits.

An introduction to the methodology and philosophy of history, with particular emphases on preparing students for historical research and writing, on the public uses of history, and on the discipline as a Christian vocation.
Offered: Spring.

HIS300 • American Beginnings. 4 Credits.

An exploration of early American history from Native-American communities through the American Revolution. Investigation of the origins and character of American beginnings through the interactions of Native Americans, African Americans, and Euro-Americans. Topics covered include: Native-American responses to European invasion, colonial expansion, slavery, family structure, early industrialism, and the formation of the Constitution.
Prerequisites: HIS200L or sophomore standing. Offered: Fall 2017; Fall 2020

HIS301 • A New Nation. 4 Credits.

An exploration of 19th century American history from 1790 to 1890. Examination of major social, economic, cultural, political, and religious change in 19th century America, with an emphasis on the intersections of race, class, and gender.
Prerequisites: HIS200L or sophomore standing. Offered: Fall, 2018

HIS302 • History of Sexuality in the United States. 4 Credits.

An examination of the history of sexuality from the colonial period to the present. Particular attention to the impact of religion, culture, government, science, and economics on the formation of sexual mores and identities, and the relationship between sexuality and gender, race, ethnicity, age, and class.
Prerequisites: Sophomore standing. Offered: Spring, even # years

HIS305G • The Cold War. 3 Credits.

The Cold War as an event in international history, studied from the perspective of the United States, the Soviet Union, China, Europe, and the Third World. Introduces students to ongoing historical debates and to the sources historians use in those debates (including declassified documents available online).
Prerequisites: [GES130; GES160; Contemporary Western Life and Thought (L) course; World Cultures (U) course] or [GES244; World Cultures (U) course]. Offered: Spring, odd # years. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in political science.

HIS307 • The American Civil War. 4 Credits.

A history of the American Civil War: causes, course of the war, and short- and long-term consequences. Includes, but is not limited to: examining political, military, social, cultural, economic, religious, and environmental events of the American Civil War.
Prerequisites: HIS200L or sophomore standing. Offered: Spring, odd # years

HIS310 • Near Eastern and Greek Civilizations. 4 Credits.

Roots of Western civilization in the Near East and Greece. World of the Mesopotamian Empire; Egypt of the pharaohs; and Greece of Homer, Socrates, and Alexander. Cultural and historical context for understanding biblical literature.
Prerequisites: GES130 or GES145; sophomore standing. Offered: Occasionally

HIS311 • Roman Civilization. 4 Credits.

Development of the Romans from their origins through their achievement of a world empire to the conversion of the Emperor Constantine. Politics, government, literature, art, philosophy, and religion as well as the emergence and growth of the Christian church. Continuing heritage of Rome in our contemporary world.
Prerequisites: GES130 or GES145; sophomore standing. Offered: Spring

HIS312 • Medieval Europe. 4 Credits.

Historical developments in Western Europe from the reign of Constantine to the era of Petrarch (A.D. 325-1350). Broad cultural, economic, political, social, and religious patterns, with emphasis on the development of the church in its social context.
Prerequisites: GES130 or GES145; sophomore standing. Offered: Occasionally

HIS320K • History and the Human Environment. 3 Credits.

Environmental and geographical background of human history. Agriculture, climate, energy resources, transportation, and diseases, especially as they have influenced the historical development of Western Europe and North America. Implications for current and future environmental concerns.
Prerequisites: Laboratory Science (D) course; Mathematics (M) course. Offered: Fall, spring. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in geography.

HIS324G • Human Rights in International History. 3 Credits.

International and comparative exploration of how human rights have been defined, violated, and protected. Discussion of historical topics (e.g., the abolition of the slave trade, social reform and Christian missions, the genocides of the 20th century), as well as contemporary issues. May include a service-learning project completed at Bethel or with a local organization.
Prerequisites: [GES130; GES160; Contemporary Western Life and Thought (L) course; World Cultures (U) course] or [GES244; World Cultures (U) course]. Offered: Spring, even # years. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in political science.

HIS328G • Muslim Women in History. 3 Credits.

Global survey of the lives of Muslim women from the 7th century to the present. Examination of how Muslim women’s lives have historically been shaped by their social context, with particular attention to religious interpretation and expression, culture, ethnicity, and geographic location.
Prerequisites: [GES130; GES160; Contemporary Western Life and Thought (L) course; World Cultures (U) course] or [GES244; World Cultures (U) course]. Offered: Interim. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in religious studies.

HIS329 • African Politics. 3 Credits.

Consideration of political development in Africa from the pre-colonial era through the present, focusing on changes in political regimes through time, the nature of economic struggles, and sources of violent conflict. Specific case studies and shared African experiences and challenges will be examined.
Prerequisites: POS202U or POS205 recommended. Offered: Spring. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in political science.

HIS335G • The Reformations. 3 Credits.

Christian worldviews in the 16th century, including the Protestant Reformation, Catholic Reformation, and Radical Reformation.
Prerequisites: [GES130; GES160; Contemporary Western Life and Thought (L) course; World Cultures (U) course] or [GES244; World Cultures (U) course]. Offered: Fall, even # years

HIS350 • Modern America. 4 Credits.

An exploration of 20th century American history from 1890 to the present. Examination of major social, economic, cultural, political, and religious change in modern America, with an emphasis on the intersections of race, class, and gender.
Prerequisites: HIS200L; sophomore standing. Offered: Fall, 2019

HIS354 • Modern Europe. 4 Credits.

The social, political, diplomatic, intellectual, and religious history of Europe since 1750. Key themes include political reforms and revolutions, gender roles, industrialization, migration, nationalism, imperialism, total war, totalitarianism, genocide, decolonization, and secularization.
Prerequisites: GES130 or GES246; sophomore standing. Offered: Fall

HIS356 • Modern Middle East. 4 Credits.

Political, social, religious, economic, and cultural history of the Middle East since 1800. Particular attention is paid to colonialism, globalization, war, gender roles revolution, and reform. Controversies such as the Arab/Israeli conflict, the Islamic Revolution in Iran, Saddam Hussein’s Iraq, and the U.S. war on terror are discussed.
Prerequisites: Sophomore standing. Offered: Fall. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in political science.

HIS360 • Classics in Western Political Philosophy. 4 Credits.

Selected political theorists. Such writers as Plato, Aristotle, Machiavelli, Luther, Calvin, Locke, Marx, and Niebuhr. Concentrates on primary sources.
Prerequisites: One course in political science, philosophy, or European history. Offered: Spring, even # years. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in philosophy and political science.

HIS370 • Topics in American History. 3-4 Credits.

Selected topics in American history. Specific topic to be announced in advance of registration.
Prerequisites: HIS200L or consent of instructor. Repeatable course: The course may be repeated when a different topic is emphasized. Offered: Occasionally

HIS371 • Topics in European History. 3-4 Credits.

Selected areas, themes, and periods of European history. Specific topic is announced in advance of registration.
Prerequisites: GES130 or GES246; Contemporary Western Life and Thought (L) course. Repeatable course: The course may be repeated when a different topic is emphasized. Offered: Occasionally

HIS372 • Topics in Global History. 3 Credits.

Selected themes, periods, and areas, focusing on Asia, Africa, or Latin America. Specific topic to be announced in advance of registration.
Prerequisites: GES130 or GES246; Contemporary Western Life and Thought (L) course or GES246; World Cultures (U) course. Repeatable course: May be repeated when a different topic is emphasized. Offered: Occasionally

HIS400 • Research in History. 3 Credits.

An opportunity to work with a member of the history faculty on a major research project.
Prerequisites: Major in history; coursework appropriate to the area of research; invitation of supervising faculty member; consent of department. Offered: Occasionally. Special Notes: No student may take more than six credits in HIS400 and/or directed study.

HIS481 • Internship in History. 1-4 Credits.

A practical experience in applying academic skills in an off-campus setting under the dual supervision of a history faculty member and a practicing historian or related professional. Designed by student in consultation with history department faculty.
Prerequisites: Major in history. Offered: Occasionally

HIS499 • Senior Seminar. 4 Credits.

Historiography, historical methodology, and the philosophy of history. Emphasis on synthesis, integration, and writing of a research paper.
Prerequisites: Senior standing and HIS290 (or consent of instructor). Offered: Spring

HON160 • Pietas Seminar I. 3 Credits.

An introduction to the meaning and value of a liberal arts education in the Christian tradition and to key facets of the Pietas Program. While exploring a specific topic of interest, the seminar promotes the establishment of community among students, faculty, and varying aspects of student life. Students are also provided with instruction and practice in writing, as well as preparing and delivering oral presentation, in a manner that addresses the strengths and needs of Pietas Program students. PW: Admission to the Pietas program.
Offered: Fall, spring.

HON205U • Finding Community on the Margin. 3 Credits.

Exploration of community building that occurs in situations of oppression and exploitation along the lines of ethnicity, religion/culture, and/or economic life. With a focus on a people group found outside the dominant cultures of Europe and North America and living in a situation of marginalization and oppression (e.g., Dalits in India or Roma in Europe), understand the larger social, religious, and economic forces that shape the world of this group. Explore the cultural and personal perspectives of the members of this group. Study programs that address these situations and attempt to break the bonds of oppression and exploitation. Seek a faith-based response to these issues.
Prerequisites: GES130 (may be taken concurrently) or GES244 (may be taken concurrently); admission to the Honors Program. Offered: Spring

HON300G • Pietas Seminar II. 3 Credits.

Analysis and evaluation of community in varying contexts. Investigation of different models of community through reflection, experiential learning, film, fiction, and non-fiction.
Prerequisites: Pietas Seminar I; admission to the Honors Program; [GES130; GES160; Contemporary Western Life and Thought (L) course; World Cultures (U) course] or [GES244; World Cultures (U) course]. Offered: Interim or spring

HON305K • Issues in Science, Technology and Society. 3 Credits.

Contemporary and historical topics are chosen to illustrate societal and cultural interactions with concurrent developments in science and technology. Examples of personal and corporate decision-making processes are stressed, thereby working toward a goal of preparation and motivation for responsible citizenship.
Prerequisites: Laboratory Science (D) course; Mathematics (M) course; admission to the Honors Program. Offered: Fall, Spring

HON464P • Pietas Seminar IV. 3 Credits.

As a capstone experience, seniors in the Honors Program will work collaboratively to research, discuss, evaluate, and address an interdisciplinary issue of contemporary civic importance. Through this work, students will have the opportunity to synthesize work completed in other Honors courses and projects as well as give mature reflection on the role of faith in the life of Christian scholarship.

LAT101 • Introductory Latin I. 4 Credits.

Introduction to the spoken and written language and culture of ancient Rome.
Offered: Fall, odd # years.

LAT102S • Introductory Latin II. 4 Credits.

Further study and use of the spoken and written language and culture of ancient Rome.
Prerequisites: LAT101 or placement exam. Offered: Spring, even # years

LEA100 • Emerging Leaders. 3 Credits.

An introduction to leadership with a focus on effective characteristics and practices of leadership theories, leadership styles, core leadership competencies, individual self-discovery, management, followership, and integration of faith and leadership. Opportunities given for students to identify, clarify, and develop individual leadership skills and abilities.
Offered: Fall, spring.

LEA200 • Leading Teams. 3 Credits.

Explores effective leadership of teams, focusing on how teams interact and how effective leaders navigate opportunities and challenges of leading teams. Opportunities for creating teams in class are provided for students to explore the dynamics of team development and to grow and develop their own team leadership skills.
Prerequisites: LEA100. Offered: Occasionally fall, spring

LEA300 • Leading Organizations. 3 Credits.

Leadership within organizational contexts; how organizations operate and provide opportunities and challenges for leaders; demands of collaborative leadership; organizational change and leaders’ means of guiding it; leadership within Christian organizations and contexts.
Prerequisites: LEA200. Offered: Fall, occasionally spring

LEA350 • Leadership Practicum and Seminar. 4 Credits.

The leadership practicum experience provides opportunities for students to learn about the practical aspects of leadership by applying theories and concepts from their academic classes to field-based learning settings. Placement sites are chosen to complement the student’s major and career interests. Includes a weekly seminar.
Prerequisites: LEA300 (may be taken concurrently); consent of instructor. Offered: Occasionally fall, spring

LEA351 • Leadership Seminar. 1 Credit.

Provides opportunities for students to learn the practical aspects of leadership by applying theories and concepts from their academic experiences to their discipline-specific internship.
Prerequisites: LEA100; LEA300; consent of instructor; internship within a major (may be taken concurrently). Offered: Fall, spring

LIN210Z • Introduction to Second Language Acquisition. 3 Credits.

Study of current research and theories of second language acquisition in children and adult learners. Examination of second language learning process and variables that affect second language acquisition. Classroom strategies include differentiating instruction for all language learners. Service learning experience required.
Offered: Fall, spring.

LIN300 • Introduction to Linguistics. 3 Credits.

A study of three major areas of linguistics: 1) articulatory phonetics, phonology, morphology, and syntax (how units of sound are structured into larger units, forming words and sentences); 2) sociolinguistics (how language functions in society); and 3) psycholinguistics (how children and adults acquire language).
Prerequisites: Two college semesters of a second language or equivalent proficiency. Offered: Fall.

MAT101M • Mathematics for the 21st Century. 3 Credits.

Mathematical ideas that a liberally educated person should be familiar with in order to function well in a technological society.
Prerequisites: Two years of high school algebra, including logarithms and exponential functions. Offered: Fall, spring

MAT102M • Creative Problem Solving. 3 Credits.

An opportunity to learn to use creative thinking and intuition to gain confidence in understanding and solving some intriguing problems in mathematics.
Prerequisites: High school algebra and geometry. Offered: Interim

MAT123M • Precalculus. 3 Credits.

Mathematics topics required for MAT124M or for further study in the natural sciences. Equations and inequalities; graphs of functions and relations; polynomial, rational, exponential, logarithmic functions; trigonometric functions, identities, equations, and applications.
Prerequisites: Two years of high school algebra; satisfy math department placement requirements. Offered: Fall, spring

MAT124M • Calculus 1. 4 Credits.

A mathematical foundation for future college courses and beyond. An introduction to the concepts and methods of the derivative and the integral, and a demonstration of how they are applied in real-world modeling situations. Topics are examined graphically, numerically, and algebraically, including using a symbolic computer algebra system to aid with understanding.
Prerequisites: MAT123M or equivalent high school or college course(s); satisfy math department placement requirements. Offered: Fall, spring

MAT125 • Calculus 2. 4 Credits.

A continuation of the equipping of students with tools for effective problem solving. Study of integration, sequences and series, and introduction to differential equations and approximation techniques. Each topic is approached from several viewpoints (graphical, numerical, algebraic) to involve students with different learning styles.
Prerequisites: MAT124M. Offered: Fall, spring

MAT201M • Mathematics for Elementary Education 1. 3 Credits.

Introduction to problem solving; patterns and sequences; systems of numeration; sets and logic; concepts, operations, and algorithms for each subset of the real numbers; elementary number theory; concepts and applications of ratios, proportions, and percents.
Prerequisites: Major in elementary education; minimum ACT mathematics score of 24, minimum SAT mathematics score of 560, or satisfactory completion of Bethel's online Math for Elementary Education prep course. Offered: Fall, spring. Special Notes: MAT201M may not be used to fulfill the requirements for a major or minor in mathematics.

MAT202 • Mathematics for Elementary Education 2. 3 Credits.

Problem-solving and reasoning strategies; algebraic expressions, equations, and functions; data analysis, statistics, combinations/permutations, and probability; concepts and applications of two- and three-dimensional geometry and measurement.
Prerequisites: Grade of C or higher in MAT201M. MAT202 may not be used to fulfill the requirements for a major or minor in mathematics. Offered: Fall, spring

MAT207M • Statistical Analysis. 3 Credits.

Descriptive statistics. Discrete probability spaces, random variables, and distributions. Normal distribution, statistical inference, estimation, hypothesis testing, linear regression, correlation analysis, and analysis of variance. Applications to business, economics, and science.
Offered: Fall, interim, spring. Special Notes: Students may not receive credit for both MAT207M and PSY230M.

MAT209 • Financial Mathematics for Actuarial Science. 3 Credits.

Topics and problem-solving practice for the actuarial exam in financial mathematics. Theory or interest topics include: time value of money, annuities, cash flows, amortized loans, bonds, portfolios, and immunization. Financial econmics topics include: derivatives, options, forwards and futures, swaps, hedging, and investment strategies.
Prerequisites: MAT125 Offered: Occasionally.

MAT211 • Linear Algebra. 3 Credits.

Linear systems, matrices, vectors and vector spaces, linear transformations, inner products, norms, eigenvalues and eigenvectors, orthogonality, and applications. Provides a foundation for many areas of study in mathematics, computer science, engineering, and science.
Prerequisites: MAT125 or MAT241. Offered: Fall, spring.

MAT222 • Differential Equations. 3 Credits.

Analytic solution methods for ordinary differential equations, including special methods for first- and second-order systems, and transformation methods. Analysis of systems of differential equations using linear algebra and qualitative phase plane techniques.
Prerequisites: MAT125. MAT223 strongly recommended. Offered: Spring

MAT223 • Multivariable Calculus. 3 Credits.

Differential calculus of real functions on Rn: limits, continuity, partial and directional derivatives, mean value theorem, implicit functions, Taylor’s Theorem, and optimization techniques (including Lagrange multipliers). Multiple integral theory: change of variables, iterated integrals, and line integration (Green’s Theorem).
Prerequisites: MAT125. Offered: Fall, spring

MAT241 • Discrete Mathematics. 3 Credits.

Covers a collection of topics useful to mathematics and computer science majors. The unifying factor is that the topics deal mainly with finite collections of mathematical objects (graphs, trees, finite state machines, etc.). Also includes examination of sets, logic, Boolean algebras, proof techniques, algorithm analysis, counting, and recursion.
Prerequisites: MAT124M. Offered: Fall

MAT310 • Algebraic Structures. 4 Credits.

Study of groups, rings, fields, and applications of these algebraic structures from a firm axiomatic foundation with a strong emphasis on properly written proofs.
Prerequisites: MAT211. Offered: Spring

MAT330 • Probability and Statistics. 3 Credits.

Discrete and continuous probability spaces, distribution and density functions, random variables, sampling, expectation, estimation, and hypothesis testing.
Prerequisites: MAT125. Offered: Fall

MAT331 • Applied Statistics. 3 Credits.

Linear and multilinear regression. Factor analysis, including analysis of variance and experimental design.
Prerequisites: MAT330 or consent of instructor. Offered: Spring, even # years

MAT344 • Numerical Methods. 3 Credits.

Numerical methods for solving systems of linear equations, finding roots and fixed points, approximating data and functions, numerical integration, finding solutions to differential equations.
Prerequisites: MAT211 or MAT222. Recommended: COS105 or COS205. Offered: Fall. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in computer science. 201911

MAT351 • Modern Geometry. 3 Credits.

A survey of informal and formal geometric topics. Investigation of concepts, structure, proof, Euclidean, non-Euclidean, and transformational geometry.
Prerequisites: MAT241 or consent of instructor. Offered: Fall, even # years. Special Notes: Designed for students seeking licensure to teach math in grades 5-12.

MAT376 • Operations Research. 4 Credits.

Mathematical techniques used in systems analysis, including linear programming, simulation techniques, and other topics such as transportation models, integer programming, and network analysis.
Prerequisites: COS105 or COS205; MAT211. Offered: Fall, odd # years

MAT422 • Real Analysis. 3 Credits.

Elementary set theory, properties of real numbers, functions of real variables, sequences, series, Riemann and Stieltjes integration, and introduction to normed linear spaces.
Prerequisites: MAT223; MAT310. Offered: Fall

MAT425 • Topics in Mathematics. 3 Credits.

A seminar designed to provide an in-depth experience with a specific field of mathematics. Topics vary from semester to semester and include logic, number theory, dynamical systems, chaos and fractals, complex analysis, partial differential equations and Fourier analysis, intermediate probability and statistics, combinatorics, and topology.
Corequisites: MAT310 or consent of instructor. Offered: Spring, odd # years.

MAT499 • Foundations of Mathematics. 3 Credits.

A short history of mathematics’ major transition points, overview of foundations of mathematics, axiomatic structures, and philosophies of mathematics.
Prerequisites: Major in mathematics; senior standing. Offered: Interim

MIN200 • Foundations of Ministry. 3 Credits.

Introduction to the theology and practice of ministry. Presents a conceptual, theological, and biblical understanding of ministry. Opportunity to develop a usable, working philosophy of ministry and a model for critical thinking about the practice of contemporary ministry.
Prerequisites: BIB101 (may be taken concurrently). Offered: Fall

MIN210 • Adolescent Development and the Family. 3 Credits.

Examination of child and adolescent development and family dynamics. Emphasis on understanding child/adolescent development in the physical, cognitive, moral, psycho-social, cultural, and spiritual arenas, along with examining family social systems and family dynamics. Focus on application to practical ministry.
Prerequisites: MIN200. Offered: Fall, odd # years

MIN310Z • Conflict, Reconciliation, and the Church. 3 Credits.

Ministry in an urban, multicultural context. Emphasizes biblical, theological, and historical themes of reconciliation, diversity, poverty, and justice. Experiences include homeless shelters, youth ministry centers, spiritually formative practices, and the religious and cultural life of a major city.
Prerequisites: THE201; junior standing. Special Notes: Carries cross-listing in biblical and theological studies and reconciliation studies. Offered: Interim

MIN320 • Spiritual and Faith Formation. 3 Credits.

Dynamics of spiritual development and faith formation. Review of biblical, historical, and theological models as well as contemporary social science research. Emphasizes the spiritual and faith formation of both ministers and those to whom they minister, and the interrelatedness of evangelism and discipleship as well as counseling and referral.
Prerequisites: MIN200. Offered: Spring

MIN328 • Missional Theology. 3 Credits.

Explores the doctrine of the Trinity and its connections to the missio Dei (mission of God) and how God’s mission influences our thinking and practice as the church, with a special emphasis on the context of North America.
Prerequisites: BIB101 or THE201; minimum junior standing. Offered: Spring

MIN330 • Teaching in Ministry Contexts. 3 Credits.

Preparation and delivery of presentations enabling students to teach effectively in various settings. Students develop their theology and philosophy of teaching and learning. Improving skills in teaching small and large groups, facilitating discussion, adapting curriculum to audiences and contexts, and self-analysis. Emphasis on biblical themes of reconciliation, diversity, and justice.
Prerequisites: MIN200. Offered: Fall, even # years

MIN350 • Ministry Practicum I. 1 Credit.

Explores ministry as a career through discipleship and job shadowing. Development as a disciple, and reflection on personal call to ministry as a career.
Prerequisites: MIN200. Grade exceptions: Graded on an S/U basis. Offered: Fall

MIN355 • Ministry Practicum II. 1 Credit.

Explores ministry as a career through discipleship and job shadowing. Development as a discipler, and reflection on personal call to ministry as a career.
Prerequisites: MIN200; MIN350. Grade exceptions: Graded on an S/U basis. Offered: Spring

MIN483 • Ministry Internship I. 3 Credits.

Explores ministry as a career through a supervised ministry internship, seminars, readings, and reflections. Students reflect especially on defining their current sense of calling.
Prerequisites: MIN200; MIN350; MIN355. Grade exceptions: Graded on an S/U basis. Offered: Fall

MIN484 • Ministry Internship II. 3 Credits.

Explores ministry as a career through a supervised ministry internship, seminars, readings, and reflections. Students integrate various components of their Missional Ministries major.
Prerequisites: MIN200; MIN350; MIN355; MIN483. Grade exceptions: Graded on an S/U basis. Offered: Spring

MIN499 • Senior Seminar. 3 Credits.

Selected topics in ministry leadership with emphasis on preparation for ministry, culminating with a professional portfolio. A major research project is followed by an oral presentation of its results.
Prerequisites: Interpreting Biblical Themes (J) course; MIN200; Missional Ministries major; senior standing. Offered: Spring

MUS101 • Music Fundamentals. 1 Credit.

Fundamentals of music theory notation: clefs; time signatures; major and minor key signatures; major and all three forms of minor scales; intervals and triads, including qualities and inversions; Roman numeral analysis with figured bass; overtone series.
Corequisites: Requires concurrent registration with MUL143A or consent of instructor. Offered: Fall.

MUS103 • Introduction to Music Literature. 2 Credits.

Development of listening skills and musical vocabulary pertinent to the study of Western music history through a chronological survey of major historical style periods and representative literature.
Corequisites: Requires concurrent registration with MUS101 and MUL143A, or consent of instructor. Offered: Fall.

MUS104 • Music Theory I. 3 Credits.

A continuation of MUS101 concepts and materials: voice-leading and part-writing of triads and seventh chords, and modulations in diatonic chorale style. Beginning development of ear-training and sight-singing, music technology, computer applications, and continuation of functional keyboard skills.
Prerequisites: MUS101; MUS103. Offered: Spring

MUS195 • Music Hour. 0 Credit.

A semi-monthly informal recital for the purpose of student performance or discussion of topics of significance to musicians. Music majors and minors are required to perform on their applied instruments in a minimum of one Music Hour recital per semester. First-semester freshmen perform at the discretion of the private instructor. Music majors must register each semester in residence in order to complete the Recital and Concert Attendance requirements for graduation.
Prerequisites: Music major or minor. Grade exceptions: Graded on an S/U bases. Offered: Fall, spring

MUS202 • Music Theory II. 3 Credits.

A continuation of MUS104 concepts and materials: advanced voice-leading and part-writing skills, chromaticism/non-diatonicism, introduction to jazz and pop theory. Continued development of ear-training, sight-singing, functional keyboard skills, music technology, and computer applications.
Prerequisites: MUS104. Offered: Fall

MUS203 • Music Theory III. 3 Credits.

Practice in 16th century counterpoint; analysis of forms from 18th century counterpoint through classical forms; continuation of ear-training, sight-singing, and functional keyboard skills.
Prerequisites: MUS202 or consent of instructor. Offered: Spring

MUS210 • Collaborative Keyboard Skills. 2 Credits.

A series of class lessons for the advancing piano student. Topics include sight-reading, ensemble playing, transposition, open score reading, and accompanying.
Prerequisites: MUS104 or consent of instructor. Offered: Spring 2020

MUS262A • How To Write A Song. 3 Credits.

Explore song history, analysis, and structure in order to compose and record original piece.
Offered: Occasionally. Special Notes: Does not require formal music background.

MUS301 • Music Theory IV. 3 Credits.

Advanced analysis and composition in all styles with a focus on 20th century music.
Prerequisites: MUS203. Offered: Spring, odd # years

MUS305G • Music in World Cultures. 3 Credits.

Introductory study of cultural traditions, belief systems, and practices of world cultures through the study and analysis of the music of ethnic groups. Specific cultures included may vary each year.
Prerequisites: [GES130; GES160; Contemporary Western Life and Thought (L) course; World Cultures (U) course] or [GES244; World Cultures (U) course]. Offered: Spring, even # years

MUS312 • Music History and Literature I. 3 Credits.

Chronological survey of Western musical art from the Greek civilization through the Baroque period with detailed examination of representative works. Required listening, examinations, and written projects.
Prerequisites: MUS103; MUS104. Offered: Fall

MUS313 • Music History and Literature II. 3 Credits.

A continuation of MUS312, from 1750 to the present.
Prerequisites: MUS312. Offered: Spring

MUS315 • Piano Literature. 3 Credits.

A survey of the literature for the solo piano, spanning 400 years from the Baroque through the Modern Era.
Prerequisites: Keyboard major or minor, or instructor’s permission. Offered: Spring 2019

MUS322 • Instrumental Literature and Conducting. 3 Credits.

Principles of conducting as applied to orchestral and band literature. Musical style and the responsibility of the conductor to the score. Instrumental music of the Classic, Romantic, and 20th century periods will be explored.
Prerequisites: MUS324. Offered: Spring

MUS323 • Instrumentation. 2 Credits.

Introduction of all major instruments with emphasis on transpositions, ranges, and idiomatic writing. Arranging of music for large and small combinations of woodwind, brass, string, and percussion instruments.
Prerequisites: MUS202; MUS312. Offered: Spring

MUS324 • Choral Literature and Conducting. 3 Credits.

Development of conducting techniques with the application of stylistic principles to the styles of the Renaissance, Baroque, Classic, Romantic, and 20th century periods.
Prerequisites: MUS203; MUS313 or consent of instructor. Offered: Fall

MUS326 • Vocal Literature. 3 Credits.

Development of conducting techniques with the application of stylistic principles to the styles of the Renaissance, Baroque, CLassic, Romatic, and 20th century periods.
Prerequisites: MUS203, MUS313.

MUS357 • Piano Pedagogy. 2 Credits.

Methods of teaching piano. Overview of teaching materials including method books, literature collections and anthologies, and supplementary materials.
Prerequisites: Major or minor in music. Offered: Spring 2018

MUS358 • Brass Methods. 2 Credits.

Methods of teaching brass instruments (trumpet, horn, trombone, tuba). Performance techniques and materials as well as practical experience on each of the representative instruments.
Prerequisites: Major or minor in music. Offered: Fall, even # years

MUS359 • Percussion Methods. 2 Credits.

Methods of teaching percussion (snare drum, keyboard/mallets, timpani, concert accessories/auxiliary, drum set). Performance techniques and materials as well as practical experience on most of the represented instruments.
Prerequisites: Major or minor in music. Offered: Spring, odd # years

MUS360 • String Pedagogy. 2 Credits.

Methods of teaching stringed instruments (violin, viola, cello, bass). Performance techniques and materials as well as practical experience on each of the representative instruments.
Prerequisites: Major or minor in music. Offered: Spring, even # years

MUS362 • Woodwind Pedagogy. 2 Credits.

Methods of teaching woodwind instruments (flute, clarinet, oboe, saxophone, bassoon). Performance techniques and materials as well as practical experience on each of the representative instruments.
Prerequisites: Major or minor in music. Offered: Fall, odd # years

MUS363 • Vocal Pedagogy. 2 Credits.

Methods of teaching the vocal mechanism and its functions. Performance techniques and materials as well as practical experience.
Prerequisites: Four semesters of voice lessons. Offered: Spring, odd # years

MUS366 • Italian and English Lyric Diction. 1 Credit.

Studies in pronunciation of Italian and English songs through the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). Verbal, written, and sung realization of this work practiced on assigned repertoire.
Prerequisites: One year private voice study or equivalent. Offered: Fall

MUS367 • French Lyric Diction. 1 Credit.

Studies in pronunciation of French diction through use of the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). Verbal, written, and sung realizations of this work practiced on assigned repertoire.
Prerequisites: MUS366. Offered: Spring, odd # years

MUS368 • German Lyric Diction. 1 Credit.

Studies in pronunciation of German diction through the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). Verbal, written, and sung realization of this work practiced on assigned repertoire.
Prerequisites: MUS366. Offered: Spring, even # years

MUS395 • Junior Recital. 0 Credit.

A culminating performance experience required for the bachelor of music applied performance major. A one half-hour recital of Level III repertoire is presented.
Prerequisites: Pre-recital hearing. Offered: Fall, spring

MUS495 • Half Senior Recital. 0 Credit.

A culminating performance experience required for the bachelor of arts in sacred music and bachelor of music education majors. A one half-hour recital of Level III repertoire is presented.
Prerequisites: Pre-recital hearing. Offered: Fall, spring

MUS496 • Full Senior Recital. 0 Credit.

A culminating performance experience required for the bachelor of music applied performance major. A one-hour recital of Level IV repertoire is presented.
Prerequisites: Pre-recital hearing. Offered: Fall, spring

NAS101D • Science Concepts -Life Science. 2 Credits.

Study of fundamental concepts and processes of life science. Emphasis on the means by which science knowledge is produced through inquiry-based activities, which are an important, active-learning component in elementary school education.
Prerequisites: Major in elementary education. Offered: Fall, spring. Special Notes: This course is a half-term course. Students may not take this course and another NAS course the same half-term.

NAS102D • Science Concepts - Earth/Space Science. 2 Credits.

Study of fundamental concepts and processes of earth/space science. Emphasis on the means by which science knowledge is produced through inquiry-based activities, which are an important, active-learning component in elementary school education.
Prerequisites: Major in elementary education. Offered: Fall, spring. Special Notes: This course is a half-term course. Students may not take this course and another NAS course the same half-term.

NAS103D • Science Concepts -Chemistry. 2 Credits.

Study of fundamental concepts and processes of chemistry. Emphasis on the means by which science knowledge is produced through inquiry-based activities, which are an important, active-learning component in elementary school education.
Prerequisites: Major in elementary education. Offered: Fall, spring. Special Notes: This course is a half-term course. Students may not take this course and another NAS course the same half-term.

NAS104D • Science Concepts - Physics. 2 Credits.

Study of fundamental concepts and processes of physics. Emphasis on the means by which science knowledge is produced through inquiry-based activities, which are an important, active-learning component in elementary school education.
Prerequisites: Major in elementary education. Offered: Fall, spring. Special Notes: This course is a half-term course. Students may not take this course and another NAS course the same half-term.

NAS300 • Exploring Applied Concepts in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math. 4 Credits.

Using an integrative approach, the course focuses on the nature of science and engineering, scientific argumentation, and scientific inquiry to solve authentic problems in order to develop a greater understanding of STEM as it applies to elementary classrooms.
Prerequisites: NAS101D; NAS102D; NAS103D; NAS104D; MAT201M; MAT202. A minimum cumulative GPA of 2.75 is required within the PQ courses. Offered: Fall

NAS400 • Applied Research in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math Design. 4 Credits.

Draws from prior NAS coursework to design, test, and implement a Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) unit focusing on a local issue applicable in an elementary classroom. The senior capstone project culminates with a teaching experience followed by a formal presentation of the original engineering design project and demonstration of its application to elementary education.
Prerequisites: NAS300. Offered: Spring

NSC130 • Introduction to Neuroscience. 3 Credits.

An introduction to the biological basis of behavior. Focuses on two main themes: the cellular, molecular, and genetic processes that form the foundation of nervous system function and the systems-level organization of the nervous system that forms the foundation of human and animal behavior.
Corequisites: Concurrent registration in NSC130D is required. Offered: Spring. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in biology.

NSC130D • Intro to Neuroscience Lab. 1 Credit.

Laboratory experience accompanying PSY130.
Corequisites: Concurrent registration in NSC130 is required. Offered: Spring. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in biology.

NSC350 • Neuroscience Methods. 3 Credits.

Principles and practice of neuroscience laboratory techniques. Laboratory and lecture experience are integrated to include introduction of histological, molecular, electrophysiological and computer-based neuroscience research. Collection of qualitative and quantitative data and data analysis.
Prerequisites: BIO120/BIO121; BIO130/PSY130/NSC130; PSY230. Corequisites: Concurrent registration in NSC351 is required.

NSC351 • Neuroscience Methods Lab. 1 Credit.

Lab experience accompanying NSC350.
Corequisites: Concurrent registration in NSC350 is required.

NUR202 • Nursing Skills I: Health Assessment. 2 Credits.

Introduction to assessment of the physical, cultural, psychosocial, and spiritual parameters in individuals and family health within the context of the nursing process.
Prerequisites: Acceptance into the nursing program. Corequisites: Registration in NUR201 and BIO248/BIO249 is required. Offered: Spring

NUR311 • Nursing Skills II. 2 Credits.

Development of beginning nursing skills related to caring for clients of various health/illness states. Emphasis on the nursing process, medication administration, communication, and evidence-based skills linked with theoretical content in concurrent courses.
Prerequisites: BIO248/249; NUR201; NUR202. Corequisites: Must be taken concurrently with NUR313 and NUR315. Offered: Fall

NUR312 • Nursing Skills III. 1 Credit.

Development of beginning nursing skills related to caring for clients of various health/illness states. Emphasis on the intravenous medication administration and evidence-based skills linked with theoretical content in concurrent nursing course.
Prerequisites: NUR311; NUR313; NUR315. Corequisites: Must be taken concurrently with NUR314, NUR316, and NUR318. Offered: Spring

NUR313 • Nursing Care of Individuals I. 3 Credits.

Analysis of nursing care relating to individuals experiencing selected acute, chronic, and/or potential health issues. Students use evidence, including clinical knowledge, as a framework for developing nursing diagnosis, interventions, and expected outcomes.
Prerequisites: BIO248/249; NUR201; NUR202. Corequisites: Must be taken concurrently with NUR311 and NUR315. Offered: Fall

NUR314 • Nursing Care of Individuals II. 3 Credits.

Analysis of nursing care relating to individuals experiencing selected acute, chronic, and/or potential health issues. Students use evidence, including clinical knowledge, as a framework for developing nursing diagnoses, interventions, and expected outcomes. This course is a continuation of NUR313.
Prerequisites: NUR311; NUR313; NUR315. Corequisites: Must be taken concurrently with NUR312, NUR316, and NUR318. Offered: Spring

NUR315 • Nursing Practicum I. 2 Credits.

A focus on the care of individuals in various health/illness states. Students will implement the nursing process in various healthcare settings fulfilling nursing roles with a focus on critical thinking and evidence-based practice.
Prerequisites: BIO248/249; NUR201; NUR202. Corequisites: Must be taken concurrently with NUR311 and NUR313. Offered: Fall

NUR316 • Nursing Practicum II. 5 Credits.

A focus on the care of individuals in various health/illness states. Students will implement the nursing process in laboratory and various healthcare settings, fulfilling nursing roles with a focus on critical thinking and evidence-based practice. This course is a continuation of Nursing Practicum I.
Prerequisites: NUR311; NUR313; NUR315. Corequisites: Must be taken concurrently with NUR312; NUR314; NUR318. Offered: Spring

NUR318 • Chronicity: Mental Health Focus. 2 Credits.

Overview of chronic health issues throughout the lifespan in the context of families and communities with an emphasis on mental health issues.
Prerequisites: NUR311; NUR313; NUR315. Corequisites: Must be taken concurrently with NUR312; NUR314; NUR316. Offered: Spring

NUR411Z • Nursing Skills IV. 1 Credit.

Develop nursing skills used in specialty areas of nursing with a focus on children, families, and populations. Enhance nursing informatics skills in order to improve the quality and safety of healthcare delivery.
Prerequisites: NUR312; NUR314; NUR316; NUR318. Corequisites: Must be taken concurrently with NUR415Z; NUR419; NUR425GZ. Offered: Fall

NUR412 • Nursing Skills V. 1 Credit.

Practice and demonstrate competency in complex clinical situations. Includes consideration of the scope of nursing practice in the integration of technology, skills, resource allocation, interdisciplinary collaboration, and delegation and supervision of nursing personnel.
Prerequisites: NUR411Z; NUR415Z; NUR419; NUR425GZ. Corequisites: Must be taken concurrently with NUR416 and NUR426. Offered: Spring

NUR415Z • Nursing Practicum III. 4 Credits.

Evidence-based practice, analysis of societal issues, and an understanding of cross-cultural relationships to improve nursing care. Synthesis of baccalaureate nursing roles in the care of individuals, families, and communities.
Prerequisites: NUR312; NUR314; NUR316; NUR318. Corequisites: Must be taken concurrently with NUR411Z; NUR419; NUR425GZ. Offered: Fall

NUR416 • Nursing Practicum IV. 3 Credits.

An emphasis on baccalaureate nursing role synthesis. Students use critical thinking, data and technology, evidence-based findings, and principles of leadership to manage complex patient problems and improve client health outcomes.
Prerequisites: A course in statistics; NUR411Z; NUR415Z; NUR419; NUR425GZ. Corequisites: Must be taken concurrently with NUR412 and NUR426. Offered: Spring 201811

NUR419 • Family Nursing: Peds/OB Focus. 3 Credits.

Overview of theoretical frameworks and practice applications for family health nursing with an emphasis on pediatric and obstetric clients.
Prerequisites: NUR312; NUR314; NUR316; NUR318. Corequisites: Must be taken concurrently with NUR411Z; NUR415Z; NUR425GZ. Offered: Fall

NUR425GZ • Population Focused Nursing Care. 4 Credits.

An exploration of population-focused nursing care with an emphasis on culturally diverse and underserved populations. Includes consideration of the epidemiologic process and cultural perspectives. Focuses on the advocacy and collaborator roles within the context of service-learning.
Prerequisites: NUR312; NUR314; NUR316; NUR318; [GES130; GES160; Contemporary Western Life and Thought (L) course; World Cultures (U) course] or [GES244; World Cultures (U) course]. Corequisites: Must be taken concurrently with NUR411Z; NUR415Z; NUR419. Offered: Fall

NUR426 • Leadership Development. 4 Credits.

Application of the leadership role in preparation to enter the professional nursing workforce. Integration of critical thinking skills and leadership, management, professional ethics, and Christian worldview frameworks.
Prerequisites: NUR411Z; NUR415Z; NUR419; NUR425GZ; a course in statistics. Corequisites: Must be taken concurrently with NUR412 and NUR416. Offered: Spring

NUR431 • Conversations about End of Life. 1 Credit.

Development of advance care planning facilitation skills in the context of faith, cultural, healthcare system, and societal perspectives. A First Steps ACP Facilitator Certificate is available for students who successfully complete ACP Facilitator requirements.
Prerequisites: Senior standing in nursing or social work, or consent of instructor. Offered: Spring. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in social work.

NUR481 • Internship in Nursing. 1-4 Credits.

Provides clinical-based learning opportunities to encourage application of theory and research-based knowledge in clinical practice. Students engage in experiences to enhance the development of their professional nursing role.
Prerequisites: Completed junior year of nursing program; acceptance into an approved clinical internship program. Grade exceptions: Graded on an S/U basis. Offered: Summer

NUR496 • Senior Nursing Synthesis. 1 Credit.

A focus on the transition from the student role to the role of the professional nurse. Synthesis of nursing clinical concepts that are essential for nursing graduates to provide safe, quality care to individuals, families, and groups in a variety of clinical settings. Promotion of critical thinking development and utilizing NCLEX-RN resources for preparation of NCLEX-RN.
Prerequisites: NUR202, NUR311, NUR312, NUR313, NUR314, NUR315, NUR316, NUR318, NUR411, NUR415, NUR425. Corequisites: Must be taken concurrently with NUR412, NUR416, and NUR426. Offered: Spring

PEA110Q • Disc Golf. 1 Credit.

An introduction to the game of disc golf. Includes history, equipment, etiquette, rules, technique, scoring, and playing of the sport at the disc golf course.
Offered: Fall, spring.

PEA112Q • Walk Jog Run. 1 Credit.

Basic introduction to running for health. Students learn to monitor heart rates as they progress from a walking/jogging base to runs of up to an hour in length. Proper warmup and recovery are stressed. Students begin with workouts appropriate to their fitness levels and set goals appropriate for those levels.
Offered: Fall, spring.

PEA113Q • Fly Fishing. 1 Credit.

Basic skills and equipment of fly-fishing. Includes history, equipment, fly-tying, fly-casting, knot tying, and basic streamside/lakeside entomology.
Offered: Spring.

PEA114QA • Jazz Dance. 2 Credits.

An introductory course in basic jazz dance steps and technique. Emphasis on correct body placement, technique, introduction to various jazz styles, and artistic interpretation.
Offered: Fall.

PEA115QA • Ballet. 2 Credits.

An introductory course in basic ballet dance steps and technique. Emphasis on correct body placement, technique, introduction to ballet basics and artistic interpretation.
Offered: Spring.

PEA116Q • Group Fitness. 1 Credit.

Development of cardiovascular fitness through aerobic rhythms and exercise. Workout includes varied aerobic conditioning, minimal strength training, and stretching.
Offered: Fall, spring.

PEA117Q • Cycling. 1 Credit.

Introduction to basic cycling skills, basic bicycle maintenance and repair, and cycling safety. Discussion includes cycling for sport (mountain biking, road biking), commuting, and leisure. Cycling responsibility and safety are emphasized.
Offered: Spring.

PEA118Q • Beginning Weight Training. 1 Credit.

Physical fitness through weight training. Basic principles of diet, weight training, and completion of an adequate program.
Offered: Fall, spring.

PEA119Q • Self Defense. 1 Credit.

Development of the awareness and basic skills necessary for protection and self-defense. Focus on observational and non-confrontational skills used to prevent or postpone physical aggression. Development of competency in the use of physical self-defense measures needed when prevention fails.
Offered: Fall, interim.

PEA122Q • Badminton. 1 Credit.

Basic badminton skills, player position, and strategy. Includes instruction, drills, practice, playing time, a class tournament, history, rules, etiquette, and equipment needs.
Offered: Fall, spring.

PEA124Q • Fundamentals of Basketball. 1 Credit.

Individual skill development, coordination of individual skills with other skills, strategy, and team play for the pick-up or intramural player.
Offered: Fall, spring. Special Notes: Not open to varsity basketball players.

PEA130Q • Beginning Snowboarding. 1 Credit.

Basic skills of snowboarding to achieve success on easy and intermediate terrain. Includes history, safety, equipment, and development of riding skill and technique on groomed trails.
Course fee will not be refunded in full if class is dropped after the first day of instruction. Offered: Interim.

PEA131Q • Intermediate Snowboarding. 1 Credit.

Intermediate and advanced boarding skills on intermediate and expert terrain. Emphasis on developing riding technique to tackle bumps, steps, carving, and terrain park features.
Course fee will not be refunded in full if class is dropped after the first day of instruction. Offered: Interim.

PEA132Q • Golf. 1 Credit.

Basic golf strokes. Instruction and practice of grip, swing, woods, irons, chipping, and putting at the driving range and putting green. Includes history, equipment, etiquette, rules, and scoring, as well as playing time at the golf course.
Offered: Fall, spring.

PEA133Q • Intermediate Golf. 1 Credit.

Designed for students who have had some instruction and experience with golf. Further development of strokes and emphasis on playing a more consistent golf game.
Prerequisites: PEA132Q or consent of instructor. Offered: Fall

PEA136Q • Racquetball. 1 Credit.

Basic skills and strategy of racquetball, as well as the rules, regulations, and history of the game. Includes singles, cutthroat, and doubles.
Offered: Fall, spring.Special Notes: Students must provide their own racquet.

PEA138Q • Beginning Downhill Skiing. 1 Credit.

Basic skills of downhill skiing. Includes history, safety, and equipment; walking, climbing, gliding, and traversing the hill; wedge, steer, wide track, and parallel turns; techniques in stopping and controlling speed.
Course fee will not be refunded in full if class is dropped after the first day of instruction. Offered: Interim.

PEA139Q • Intermediate Downhill Skiing. 1 Credit.

Intermediate and advanced turns at slow and intermediate speed on steep, high, and difficult terrain. Opportunity to measure ability through a race course designed for this level of ability.
Course fee will not be refunded in full if class is dropped after the first day of instruction. Offered: Interim.

PEA140Q • Cross Country Skiing I. 1 Credit.

Recreational ski touring techniques. Equipment, waxing, and safety in the winter environment. An all-day ski trip off campus.
Offered: Occasionally interim. Special Notes: Open to beginners and intermediates.

PEA141Q • Cross Country Skiing II. 1 Credit.

Reinforcement and development of diagonal stride techniques and beginning skate-skiing techniques for intermediate skiers. Discussion of more advanced waxing techniques and equipment. Includes one extended ski off campus.
Prerequisites: PEA140Q or consent of instructor. Offered: Occasionally interim

PEA142Q • Slow Pitch Softball. 1 Credit.

Fundamental skills of slow-pitch softball for the recreational player.
Offered: Fall, spring.

PEA144Q • Beginning Tennis. 1 Credit.

Basic tennis strokes. Includes instruction, drills, practice, and playing time. Covers rules, simple strategy, player position, etiquette, and guidelines for equipment selection.
Offered: Fall, spring.

PEA145Q • Intermediate Tennis. 1 Credit.

Further development of basic tennis skills with emphasis on solid and consistent stroking. Instruction, drills, practice, and playing time on the serve, forehand and backhand ground strokes, volleys, lobs, and overheads. Game-playing strategy, tiebreakers, and player position.
Offered: Spring.

PEA146Q • Volleyball. 1 Credit.

Power volleyball skills and techniques involved in volleyball as a recreational sport. Rules, strategy, as well as the application of rules in game situations. Traditional 6-on-6, coed, and reverse 4s are taught under the rules of USA volleyball. Emphasis on developing a positive attitude toward playing the game of volleyball.
Offered: Fall, spring.

PEA147Q • Intermediate Volleyball. 1 Credit.

Competitive volleyball play in which participants learn a variety of volleyball strategies, offenses, defenses, and various styles of play. Traditional 6-on-6, coed, and reverse 4s are used for competition under the rules of USA volleyball. Emphasis on applying rules in game situations, not only as a player, but also as an official.
Prerequisites: PEA146Q or participation in high school varsity volleyball. Offered: Spring, even # years

PEA150Q • Lifeguarding I. 2 Credits.

Development of the highest possible skill level in the five basic strokes, as well as instruction and practice in basic skills to save one’s own life or the life of another. Opportunity to receive a Red Cross Lifeguarding I Certificate.
Prerequisites: Advanced swimming proficiency; current CPR and First Aid certification (may be taken concurrently). Offered: Spring, odd # years

PEA151Q • Soccer. 1 Credit.

Introduction to the history, rules, and fundamental skills of soccer.
Offered: Fall.

PEA152Q • Yoga. 1 Credit.

Development of physical fitness and self-awareness through core stabilizing and strengthening exercises as an integral part of health and wellness. Emphasis on the integration of Christian faith and exercise while learning correct postures, alignments, and focus.
Offered: Spring. Special Notes: Students must provide their own exercise/yoga mat.

PHI105 • Meaning, Persons, and God. 3 Credits.

Addresses some central questions of philosophy about the meaning of life, the nature of morality, and the existence of God. Takes students on a philosophical journey with a professor, explores answers proposed by great thinkers of the past and present, and helps students develop their own ideas.
Offered: Occasionally.

PHI110 • Contemporary Moral Issues. 3 Credits.

A moral analysis of abortion, euthanasia, capital punishment, sexual morality, and self-interest. Ethical approaches of Plato, Hobbes, Butler, Bentham, Mill, Ross, Rawls, and Kant. Develop­ment of principles of love and justice, and the role of a Christian in society. Emphasis on moral decision making.
Offered: Fall, interim, spring.

PHI120 • Philosophy Through Film. 3 Credits.

Viewing and discussion of films that raise intriguing philosophical issues, combined with reading classical texts in philosophy in order to develop reflective, reasoned responses to some of life’s basic questions.
Offered: Spring, even # years.

PHI125M • Introduction to Logic. 3 Credits.

A study of standard forms of deductive and inductive logical reasoning, critical thinking, and informal fallacies. Covers rules for evaluating arguments and acquaints students with ways to distinguish good arguments from bad ones, with the goal of problem solving and making reasonable decisions about beliefs and actions.
Offered: Spring.

PHI210L • The Modern Mind. 3 Credits.

Themes and movements that have shaped European and American culture in the last 200 years, drawing on significant works in philosophy, literature, and art. Reflection on the personal and cultural meanings of living in the modern age.
Prerequisites: GES130 and GES160 (may be taken concurrently) or GES244 (may be taken concurrently). Offered: Fall

PHI220L • Philosophies of Race and Gender in America. 3 Credits.

Investigates the impact of theories of race and gender on life and thought in contemporary America. Analyzes the philosophical concepts and arguments underlying the historical development of these theories. Critically evaluates the philosophical commitments inherent in the moral and religious language used in discussions of race and gender in America.
Prerequisites: GES130 and GES160 (may be taken concurrently) or GES244 (may be taken concurrently). Offered: Fall

PHI223L • Introduction to Gender Studies. 3 Credits.

Provides a philosophical grounding in the field of Gender Studies. Introduces a broad spectrum of theories and ideas about gender, and explores key debates within the field. Examines how theories of gender emerge as well as shape and influence individual lives and social contexts in America and beyond.
Prerequisites: GES130 and GES160 (may be taken concurrently) or GES244 (may be taken concurrently). Offered: Spring

PHI228L • Philosophies of Love and Sex. 3 Credits.

Examines different perspectives on the nature of love and sexuality. Defines and distinguishes features associated with different types of love and sexuality. Explores norms concerning both, and critically examines their role in contemporary American society.
Prerequisites: GES130 and GES160 (may be taken concurrently) or GES244 (may be taken concurrently); one completed PHI course recommended. Offered: Spring, Occasionally

PHI230U • Medieval Islamic Philosophy. 3 Credits.

From 800-1200 A.D., Arabic civilization was the world’s center of intellectual, cultural, and economic developments. A study of the philosophical and theological thought developed in the Arabic world during the medieval period, and its influence on later intellectual traditions, including the Western Christian tradition.
Prerequisites: GES130 (may be taken concurrently) or GES244 (may be taken concurrently). Offered: Spring

PHI235L • Film and the Modern Sensibility. 3 Credits.

An exploration of film as an art form and as an expression of the meanings of “modernism.” Why film is a uniquely modern art form is addressed, as well as those themes that identify the “modern sensibility.” Films such as Citizen Kane, Rashomon, Do the Right Thing, Beloved, Tender Mercies, Apocalypse Now, and others are viewed and analyzed.
Prerequisites: GES130 and GES160 (may be taken concurrently) or GES244 (may be taken concurrently); one completed PHI course recommended. Offered: Occasionally interim. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in English.

PHI251 • History of Philosophy I. 3 Credits.

Development of Western philosophy from its origin with the ancient Greeks to the time of the Renaissance, emphasizing the works of Plato, Aristotle, Augustine, and Thomas Aquinas.
Prerequisites: One philosophy course. Offered: Fall

PHI252 • History of Philosophy II. 3 Credits.

Philosophical traditions beginning with the rise of modern science, including the Continental rationalists, British empiricists, Kant, and Hegel, and tracing 19th century reactions to idealism and subsequent developments in Continental and Anglo-American philosophy in the 20th century.
Prerequisites: One philosophy course. Offered: Spring

PHI301 • Symbolic Logic. 4 Credits.

A study of symbolic logic including standard translations from arguments in natural language, methods of quantification and formal proofs of validity, and an introduction to modal logic. Focus on the application of symbolic logic to philosophical arguments.
Prerequisites: PHI125M or MAT241. Offered: Occasionally

PHI302 • Philosophy and Film. 4 Credits.

What can philosophy contribute to the critical discussion of film? How does film present philosophical arguments? Why is film a unique art form? Are the worlds of film real? In what ways do films have meaning? Questions such as these are considered in the context of classic and contemporary films, as well as recent philosophical discussions of film.
Prerequisites: FLM200 and one philosophy course, or consent of the instructor. Offered: Occasionally spring

PHI305G • Philosophy of Religion. 3 Credits.

Study of issues central to religious belief. Explores different approaches to the relation of faith and reason, the sources of religious knowledge, the nature of God, the problem of evil, religious diversity, and the afterlife.
Prerequisites: [GES130; GES160; Contemporary Western Life and Thought (L) course; World Cultures (U) course] or [GES244; World Cultures (U) course]. Offered: Spring

PHI310 • Aesthetics. 3 Credits.

Problems and perspectives concerning the nature of art and aesthetic experience. Questions such as “What is art?” “What is good art?” and “What good is art?” in the context of the visual arts, music, literature, and film. The relationships among aesthetic, moral, and religious values are explored.
Prerequisites: GES125. Offered: Fall

PHI315 • Kierkegaard and Existentialism. 4 Credits.

The meanings and influence of the works of Sören Kierkegaard, 19th century Danish philosopher. Topics may include Kierkegaard’s philosophical style, his views on the nature of the self and authentic existence, freedom and despair, religious faith, Kierkegaard as social critic, and the elaboration of these themes by other existentialists. Readings from Kierkegaard’s works and those of later existentialists.
Prerequisites: One philosophy course. Offered: Spring, odd # years

PHI316 • Consciousness: Psychology and Philosophy in Dialogue. 3 Credits.

A team-taught investigation of ancient, medieval, and modern philosophies of consciousness and the historical roots of contemporary psychology. Shows how philosophical and psychological theories of consciousness transcend disciplinary boundaries. Focuses on interaction between philosophy and psychology, emphasizing the origins of cognitive science in philosophy of mind and consciousness.
Prerequisites: PSY100 or one philosophy course. Offered: Occasionally. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in psychology.

PHI320 • Ethics: Theory and Practice. 4 Credits.

Principal ethical theories and their application to problems concerning the individual and society. Readings in classical and contemporary sources focus on questions such as the meaning and justification of moral judgments, ethical relativism, and the nature of moral reasoning.
Prerequisites: Two PHI courses or approval of instructor. Offered: Spring

PHI323 • Social and Political Philosophy. 4 Credits.

A study and analysis of various theories of human interaction and association. Address questions such as: What are the differences among a community, a society, and a state? What is the role of the individual in each of these associations? What makes a social organization just? .
Prerequisites: One philosophy course. Offered: Occasionally

PHI335K • Environmental Ethics. 3 Credits.

An examination of the intersection of science, society, and technology as they pertain to issues in environmental ethics. The course moves from theory by considering science, society, and technology philosophically to application by concluding with a major research project on an applied issue in environmental ethics involving scientific data and technological choice.
Prerequisites: Laboratory Science (D) Course; Mathematics (M) course. Offered: Fall, interim. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in environmental studies.

PHI340K • Philosophy of Science. 3 Credits.

Nature of scientific method and knowledge, with special attention given to current issues in the philosophy of science. Ways in which scientific explanations relate to religious and philosophical explanations. Both natural science and social science applications.
Prerequisites: Laboratory Science (D) course; Mathematics (M) course. One philosophy course recommended. Offered: Spring

PHI360 • Classics in Western Political Philosophy. 4 Credits.

Selected political theorists. Such writers as Plato, Aristotle, early Christian writers, Machiavelli, Luther, Calvin, Locke, Marx, and Niebuhr. Concentrates on primary sources.
Prerequisites: One course in political science, philosophy, or European history; junior standing. Offered: Spring, even # year. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in political science and history.

PHI365 • Topics in Philosophy. 4 Credits.

Intensive analysis of a philosophical issue or a major philosophical figure to be announced prior to registration.
Prerequisites: One course in philosophy. Repeatable course Students may repeat the course for credit provided a different topic or philosopher is studied. Offered: Fall or spring

PHI375G • Asian Philosophy. 3 Credits.

Selected Asian philosophical streams drawn from Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, Shintoism, and the contemporary Kyoto school. Readings from religious treatises, philosophical works, and literature, with examples from the arts to encourage an understanding of Eastern worldviews, especially Japan. Persons, ethics, and aesthetics.
Prerequisites: [GES130; GES160; Contemporary Western Life and Thought (L) course; World Cultures (U) course] or [GES244; World Cultures (U) course]. Offered: Fall

PHI390 • Epistemology and Metaphysics. 4 Credits.

Topics such as the nature and meaning of knowledge, the foundations and limits of knowledge and belief, the problem of universals, the mind-body relation, and the freedom-determinism debate. Traditional and contemporary perspectives.
Prerequisites: Two courses in philosophy. Offered: Spring

PHI499 • Senior Seminar. 4 Credits.

A capstone course in which students and faculty consider contemporary issues in philosophy as well as the relationship between philosophy and Christian faith.
Prerequisites: Philosophy major or minor with senior standing, or consent of the instructor. Offered: Fall

PHY102 • Concepts in Physics. 3 Credits.

Physical perspective of the universe designed for liberal arts students. Topics from mechanics, wave motion (including sound and light), thermodynamics, and atomic and nuclear physics. Lecture demonstrations and laboratories stress a clear understanding of observed phenomena.
Corequisites: Concurrent registration in PHY102D is required. Offered: Spring.

PHY102D • Concepts in Physics Lab. 1 Credit.

Laboratory experience accompanying PHY102.
Corequisites: Concurrent registration in PHY102 is required. Offered: Spring.

PHY112 • Introduction to Astronomy. 3 Credits.

The concepts, techniques, and tools of astronomy and astrophysics for nonscience students. Includes historical overview; identification of constellations; telescopes; the nature of light, atomic spectra, and structure; the nuclear physics of stars; the life cycle of stars; and current theories of the fate of the universe.
Corequisites: Concurrent registration in PHY112D is required. Offered: Fall.

PHY112D • Introduction to Astronomy Lab. 1 Credit.

Laboratory experience accompanying PHY112. Includes optics, atomic spectra, and observations with simple instruments and telescopes.
Corequisites: Concurrent registration in PHY112 is required. Offered: Fall.

PHY202 • Introductory Physics I. 3 Credits.

Mechanics, thermal properties of matter and mechanical waves.
Prerequisites: MAT123M, MAT124M, or solid understanding and competency in high school mathematics as demonstrated by at least one of the following: a Math ACT score of at least 23, 519 on the Math portion of the SAT, a Math Placement Test score of at least 3. Corequisites: Concurrent registration in PHY202D is required. Offered: Fall

PHY202D • Introductory Physics I Lab. 1 Credit.

Laboratory experience accompanying PHY202.
Corequisites: Concurrent registration in PHY202 is required. Offered: Fall.

PHY206 • Introductory Physics II. 3 Credits.

Electricity and magnetism, sound waves, optical phenomena, and modern physics.
Prerequisites: PHY202/202D. Corequisites: Concurrent registration in PHY207 is required. Offered: Spring

PHY207 • Introductory Physics II Lab. 1 Credit.

Laboratory experience accompanying PHY206.
Corequisites: Concurrent registration in PHY206 is required. Offered: Spring.

PHY260 • Careers in Engineering and Physics Seminar. 1 Credit.

Focus on developing careers in high-technology fields such as engineering and physics. Emphasis on exploring some of the wide variety of specific careers possible through methods such as video, lecture, tours, and guest speakers. Development of practical professional skills such as writing resumes and cover letters, accumulating connections and experience, and developing techniques for interviewing.
Prerequisites: PHY296/297. Offered: Fall. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in engineering.

PHY292 • General Physics I. 3 Credits.

Kinematics, mechanics, oscillations, fluids, and conservation principles.
Prerequisites: MAT124M (may be taken concurrently). Corequisites: Concurrent registration in PHY292D is required. Offered: Fall

PHY292D • General Physics I Lab. 1 Credit.

Laboratory experience accompanying PHY292.
Corequisites: Concurrent registration in PHY292 is required. Offered: Fall.

PHY296 • General Physics II. 3 Credits.

Electricity, magnetism, thermodynamics, sound waves, and optics.
Prerequisites: PHY292/292D (with a grade of C or better); MAT125 (may be taken concurrently). Corequisites: Concurrent registration in PHY297 is required. Offered: Spring

PHY297 • General Physics II Lab. 1 Credit.

Laboratory experience accompanying PHY296.
Corequisites: Concurrent registration in PHY296 is required. Offered: Spring.

PHY302 • Electronics. 3 Credits.

Fundamentals of digital and analog electronics intended for scientists and engineers.
Prerequisites: PHY296/297 (grade of C or better); MAT124M. Corequisites: Concurrent registration in PHY303 is required. Offered: Fall

PHY303 • Electronics Lab. 1 Credit.

Laboratory experience accompanying PHY302. Extensive laboratory exercises and a choice of projects provide hands-on experience with circuits using transistors, operational amplifiers, logic gates, flip-flops, and other devices.
Corequisites: Concurrent registration in PHY302 is required. Offered: Fall.

PHY312 • Modern Physics. 3 Credits.

Relativity, quantum theory, atomic structure, nuclear structure, and elementary particles.
Prerequisites: PHY296/297 (grade of C or better); MAT223. Corequisites: Concurrent registration in PHY313 is required. Offered: Spring

PHY313 • Modern Physics Lab. 1 Credit.

Atomic and nuclear laboratory experiments accompanying PHY312.
Corequisites: Concurrent registration in PHY312 is required. Offered: Spring.

PHY320 • Mathematical Methods in Physics and Engineering. 4 Credits.

Development of skill in mathematical techniques useful in the solution of physics and engineering problems. Included are vector analysis; line and surface integrals; Fourier analysis; partial differential equations; and linear algebra topics such as basis, dimension, matrices, eigenvalues/eigenvectors.
Prerequisites: MAT222; MAT223. Offered: Fall. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in engineering.

PHY332 • Optics. 3 Credits.

Principles of geometrical and physical optics.
Prerequisites: PHY312/313; MAT223. Corequisites: Concurrent registration in PHY333 is required. Offered: Spring, even # years

PHY333 • Optics Lab. 1 Credit.

Laboratory experience accompanying PHY332 emphasizing physical optics measurements, laser technology, and holography.
Corequisites: Concurrent registration in PHY332 is required. Offered: Spring, even # years.

PHY340 • Mechanics. 4 Credits.

Particle dynamics, conservative motion, central forces, accelerated coordinate systems, and Lagrange’s equations of motion.
Prerequisites: PHY296/297 (grade of C or better); MAT222; MAT223. Offered: Spring

PHY352 • Computer Methods in Physics and Engineering. 3 Credits.

Application of the computer to solving applied problems of interest to physicists and engineers. Computer techniques are developed for numerical methods, simulation models, and data acquisition and control in the laboratory.
Prerequisites: MAT223; PHY296/297, and PHY302/303 (grade of C or better) or consent of instructor. Corequisites: Concurrent registration in PHY353 is required. Offered: Spring. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in engineering.

PHY353 • Computer Methods in Physics and Engineering Lab. 1 Credit.

Laboratory experience accompanying PHY352.
Corequisites: Concurrent registration in PHY352 is required. Offered: Spring. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in engineering.

PHY365 • Physics Research Seminar. 1 Credit.

An introduction to research in physics and the development of scientific writing skills. Emphasis placed on preparing for departmental research experiences such as PHY490 and external research experiences such as those found in industry, summer fellowship programs, and graduate schools.
Prerequisites: PHY260; PHY312/313; junior standing; a major in the physics department. Offered: Spring

PHY400 • Electricity and Magnetism. 4 Credits.

Electro- and magnetostatics, electric and magnetic fields, and electromagnetic waves.
Prerequisites: PHY296/297 (grade of C or better); MAT222; MAT223. Offered: Fall, odd # years

PHY410 • Thermodynamics. 4 Credits.

Laws of thermodynamics, conditions for thermodynamic equilibrium, and fundamentals of statistical mechanics.
Prerequisites: PHY296/297 (grade of C or better); MAT223. PHY312/313 is strongly recommended. Offered: Spring, odd # years

PHY422 • Fluid Mechanics. 3 Credits.

Laws of statics, kinematics, and dynamics applied to fluid mechanics. Integral and differential conservation laws for mass, momentum, and energy. Dimensional analysis, viscous pipe flow, boundary layers, separated flows, and potential flow.
Prerequisites: PHY296/297 (grade of C or better); MAT223. Corequisites: Concurrent registration in PHY423 is required. Offered: Fall, odd # years. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in engineering.

PHY423 • Fluid Mechanics Lab. 1 Credit.

Laboratory experience accompanying PHY422.
Corequisites: Concurrent registration in PHY422 required. Offered: Fall, odd # years. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in engineering.

PHY424 • Materials and Devices. 3 Credits.

Theory and application of condensed matter and materials. Physical origin of electrical, optical, mechanical, thermal, and magnetic properties. Particular emphasis on devices such as pn junction diodes, LEDs, solar cells, piezoelectrics, liquid crystals, nanostructures, and sensors. An accompanying lab explores characterization of materials and design, fabrication, and testing of devices.
Prerequisites: PHY302/303 or PHY312/313. Corequisites: Concurrent registration in PHY425 is required. Offered: Fall, even # years. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in engineering.

PHY425 • Materials and Devices Lab. 1 Credit.

Laboratory component of PHY424.
Corequisites: Concurrent registration in PHY424 required. Offered: Fall, even # years. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in engineering.

PHY432 • Topics in Contemporary Optics. 3 Credits.

Fourier optics, theory of coherence, quantum optics, nonlinear optics, and the physics of lasers.
Prerequisites: PHY312/313; MAT222; MAT223. Concurrent registration in PHY433 is required. Offered: Spring, odd # years

PHY433 • Topics in Contemporary Optics Lab. 1 Credit.

Laboratory experience accompanying PHY432.
Corequisites: Concurrent registration in PHY432 is required. Offered: Spring, odd # years.

PHY440 • Quantum Mechanics. 4 Credits.

Concepts and techniques of quantum mechanics.
Prerequisites: PHY312/313; MAT222; MAT223. Offered: Fall, even # years

PHY450 • Topics in Applied Physics and Engineering. 3-4 Credits.

Topics selected from various fields of engineering and applied physics for the purpose of illustrating the practical application of physical principles. Emphasis on developing the skills and viewpoints commonly used by engineers and industrial physicists. The field of engineering or applied physics is announced prior to registration.
Prerequisites: PHY302 and PHY352 (may be taken concurrently); MAT222. Repeatable course: Course may be repeated when a different topic is emphasized. Offered: Occasionally. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in engineering.

PHY481 • Internship in Physics. 1-4 Credits.

A practical experience in an off-campus professional setting in which the student applies the skills and perspectives of a physicist. Designed by student in consultation with a faculty member.
Prerequisites: Major in applied physics or physics; junior or senior standing. Offered: Fall, spring

PHY490 • Research. 3 Credits.

An opportunity for individual student projects under the supervision of the faculty.
Prerequisites: Senior standing; PHY365; major in physics department. Offered: Fall, spring

POS100 • American Politics and Government. 3 Credits.

Structure and workings of major parts of the United States national government, such as the Constitution, the presidency, Congress, the courts, the electoral process, and others. How these institutions help Americans deal with significant current issues.
Offered: Fall, spring.

POS202U • Introduction to International Relations. 3 Credits.

How governments interact to further their different political, military, and economic interests; basic factors affecting international cooperation and conflict; topics such as summit meetings, terrorism, arms control, and food and energy resources distribution; one or more international crisis simulation exercises.
Prerequisites: Second-semester freshman standing or higher; GES130 (may be taken concurrently) or GES244 (may be taken concurrently). Offered: Fall, spring

POS205 • Introduction to Comparative Politics. 3 Credits.

An introduction to the subfield of Comparative Politics with special emphasis on the nature, history, and development of political regimes. Systems to be covered include Western democracies, communist and post-communist states, military dictatorships, and politically developing states.
Offered: Fall.

POS211 • The Political Quest. 3 Credits.

Major problems of politics and international relations, such as the proper goals of political life, the nature of justice, and the role of the state. Methods of inquiry. Development of the student’s personal political stance and its relation to his or her maturing faith.
Prerequisites: One political science course. Offered: Fall, odd # years, spring

POS216L • American Constitutional History. 3 Credits.

Examination of the origins and development of American constitutional ideas and institutions from the colonial period to the present. Particular attention paid to the historical connections between major constitutional cases and broader social, political, economic, and cultural trends.
Prerequisites: GES130 and GES160 (may be taken concurrently) or GES244 (may be taken concurrently). ; one completed PHI course recommended. Offered: Occasionally interim. Offered: Spring. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in history.

POS219L • Public Leadership. 3 Credits.

Principles of public leadership and challenges for leaders to meet in the modern age; American experiences with leaders in various roles.
Prerequisites: GES130 and GES160 (may be taken concurrently) or GES244 (may be taken concurrently). Offered: Occasionally

POS221L • American Political Ideologies. 3 Credits.

Major modern American ideologies. Liberalism, conservatism, democratic socialism, anarchism, liberation theology, fascism, and gender and ethnic politics. Christian interfaces with various political theories.
Prerequisites: GES130 and GES160 (may be taken concurrently) or GES244 (may be taken concurrently). Offered: Occasionally interim. Offered: Fall

POS230L • Politics and Religion in the United States. 3 Credits.

Examines the historical and contemporary relationship between religion and politics in the United States. Divisions and political affiliations of various religious communities are considered alongside discussion of secularism, pluralism, and civil religion in America.
Prerequisites: [GES130 and GES160] or GES244 (may be taken concurrently). Offered: Interim. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in religious studies.

POS241L • Revolution and Political Development. 3 Credits.

Theory and process of modernization, with special emphasis on the Anglo-American historical experience; examinations of U.S. efforts to promote democracy internationally in Europe, Asia, and the Middle East since World War II.
Prerequisites: GES130 and GES160 (may be taken concurrently) or GES244 (may be taken concurrently). Offered: Interim. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in history.

POS250 • Political Science Practicum. 1 Credit.

In consultation with the Political Science Department, students will select an off campus program of academic study. After the off campus study, studentes will create a presentation and share their experiences in a colloquium with other International Relations, Political Science, and Business and Political Science majors. The purpose of this course is to integrate off campus experiences with curricular learning expereinces. PR: One POS course; consent of the Department of Political Science; Major in International Relations, Business and Political Sciences, Political Science, or minor in Political Science.
Offered: Spring. Special Notes: Graded on an S/U basis.

POS304 • Political Parties and Elections. 3 Credits.

Examines the role of political parties and elections in democratic political systems with a particular focus on the electoral process, political parties, voting behavior, and citizen participation. Begins with the American case as the first large-scale democratic system and uses that case as a basis for comparison in examining a number of other different electoral systems from both the developed and developing worlds.
Prerequisites: Open to sophomores with consent of instructor; POS100 recommended. Offered: Fall, even # years.

POS305G • The Cold War. 3 Credits.

The Cold War as an event in international history, studied from the perspective of the United States, the Soviet Union, China, Europe, and the Third World. Introduces students to ongoing historical debates and to the sources historians use in those debates (including declassified documents available online).
Prerequisites: [GES130; GES160; Contemporary Western Life and Thought (L) course; World Cultures (U) course] or [GES244; World Cultures (U) course]. Offered: Spring, odd # years. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in history.

POS306 • Public Administration. 3 Credits.

How public policy is put into effect through the administrative agencies of government and the problems in management of such agencies and their relations with the public.
Prerequisites: Sophomore standing. POS100 recommended. Offered: Spring. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in business.

POS310 • American Foreign Relations. 3 Credits.

Development of United States foreign policy since the Nixon administration, with particular attention paid to contemporary issues, long-range historical trends, and the ways in which foreign policy is formulated and carried out. Independent study on specific topics and issues.
Prerequisites: Sophomore standing with consent of instructor. POS100 or POS202U recommended. Offered: Fall, even # years

POS313G • The Politics of Globalization: Diplomacy, Trade and Organization. 3 Credits.

Examination of the processes, institutions, relationships, and dynamic trends in the international system. Attention is given to the creation or maintenance of international economic systems and international organizations as they address emerging or enduring problems of world politics. Key international institutions, such as the World Trade Organization or the United Nations, are used as case studies.
Prerequisites: [GES130; GES160; Contemporary Western Life and Thought (L) course; World Cultures (U) course] or [GES244; World Cultures (U) course] POS202U or POS310 recommended. Offered: Spring, even # years

POS315 • The Politics of Terrorism and Counterterrorism. 3 Credits.

Analysis of terror and terrorism, both historically and contemporarily, through study of the political psychology of terrorists and terrorist groups, the tactics of terror, and the complex relationship between terror and states. Special attention paid to the motivations for terror and the effect of religion on terrorism as a political strategy.
Prerequisites: POS202U. Offered: Spring, odd # years

POS317 • Political Psychology. 3 Credits.

Political psychology is concerned with the causes, dynamics, and consequences of human thinking and action in the context of politics. This field survey covers the psychology of decision making, political attitude formation, public opinion, personality and emotions, intergroup relations, ideology, and the role of mass media in politics.
Prerequisites: One political science course. Offered: Fall, odd # years. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in psychology.

POS321 • Contemporary Democracies. 3 Credits.

The meaning of democracy in theory and practice throughout history and in the modern political systems of Great Britain, Japan, and Mexico. Independent research in other democratic systems.
Offered: Fall, odd # years. Special Notes: Students are recommended to take POS100 or POS211 before enrolling in this course.

POS324G • Human Rights in International History. 3 Credits.

International and comparative exploration of how human rights have been defined, violated, and protected. Discussion of historical topics (e.g., the abolition of the slave trade, social reform and Christian missions, the genocides of the 20th century) as well as contemporary issues. Includes a service-learning project completed at Bethel or with a local organization.
Prerequisites: [GES130; GES160; Contemporary Western Life and Thought (L) course; World Cultures (U) course] or [GES244; World Cultures (U) course]. Offered: Spring, even # years. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in history.

POS325 • Political Communication. 3 Credits.

Analysis of the theoretical background behind political communication from a public speaking and media perspective. Attention to decision-making skills required in political campaigns. Discussion of advanced persuasive campaign theory.
Prerequisites: COM110N, POS100, or consent of instructor. Offered: Occasionally interim. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in communication studies.

POS329 • African Politics. 3 Credits.

Consideration of political development in Africa from the pre-colonial era through the present, focusing on changes in political regimes through time, the nature of economic struggles, and sources of violent conflict. Specific case studies and shared African experiences and challenges will be examined.
Offered: Spring. Special Notes: POS202U or POS205 recommended. Carries cross-credit in history.

POS330K • Science, Values, and the Making of Environmental Policy. 3 Credits.

What role do citizens and experts play in the public policy process? Do people approach scientific evidence with competing value perspectives? These questions are examined in order to understand the interplay among key people, institutions, values, and power that is present in a series of environmental policy case studies.
Prerequisites: Laboratory Science (D) course; Mathematics (M) course. Offered: Fall, even # years. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in environmental science.

POS340 • American Political Institutions. 3 Credits.

Examination of the U.S. Congress, Supreme Court, and presidency, with attention to the ­effects of institutions on the democratic and policy processes. Consideration of political science research on political institutions and contemporary issues facing them.
Prerequisites: POS100 or consent of instructor. Offered: Fall, even # years

POS342 • American Public Policy. 3 Credits.

Examination of public policy—the result of government action—through consideration of the policy process, policy design, and current status of American public policy. Special attention devoted to social policy with student investigation and research in public policy.
Prerequisites: POS100 or consent of instructor. Offered: Spring, even # years

POS345 • Modern Political Thought. 3 Credits.

Examination and consideration of selected political thinkers of the 19th and 20th centuries, including Freud, Nietzsche, Kuyper, Arendt, Rawls, Berlin, Yoder, Foucault, Mouw, and others. Concentrates on primary sources and Christian responses to the “end of political theory” in the 20th century.
Prerequisites: One course in political science, philosophy, or Western history, or consent of instructor. Offered: Spring, odd # years

POS356 • Modern Middle East. 4 Credits.

Political, social, religious, economic, and cultural history of the Middle East since 1800. Particular attention is paid to colonialism, globalization, war, gender roles revolution, and reform. Controversies such as the Arab/Israeli conflict, the Islamic Revolution in Iran, Saddam Hussein’s Iraq, and the U.S. war on terror are discussed.
Prerequisites: Sophomore standing. Offered: Fall. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in history.

POS360 • Classics in Western Political Philosophy. 4 Credits.

Selected political theorists. Writers such as Plato, Aristotle, early Christian writers, Machiavelli, Luther, Calvin, Locke, Marx, and Niebuhr. Concentrates on primary sources.
Prerequisites: One course in political science, philosophy, or European history. Offered: Spring, even # years. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in philosophy and history.

POS410 • Topics in Political Science. 3 Credits.

Intensive study of a specialized topic in political science. The topic to be studied and the subfield of the course are announced prior to the relevant registration period.
Prerequisites: Junior standing; two courses in political science. Repeatable course: Students may repeat the course for credit provided a different topic is covered. Offered: Occasionally

POS481 • Internship in Political Science. 1-4 Credits.

An off-campus working experience in a government agency or political organization under appropriate supervision. Placement is individually arranged with the Department of Political Science.
Prerequisites: Consent of department chairperson. Offered: Fall, spring

POS499 • Senior Seminar. 4 Credits.

Advanced research and analysis in selected problems and value questions in political science.
Prerequisites: POS211; senior standing or consent of instructor. Offered: Fall, spring

PSY100 • Introduction to Psychology. 3 Credits.

Methods, theories, and principal findings of psychological investigation.
Offered: Fall, spring.

PSY105 • Personal Wholeness in Relating to Self, Others, and God. 3 Credits.

Nature and process of growth in persons. Personal wholeness in relationship with self, others, and God is explored from various spiritual and psychological perspectives. Emphasis is placed on personal application of course material to promote greater self-awareness and ability to live out healthy choices regarding areas explored in course.
Offered: Fall, interim, or spring.

PSY130 • Introduction to Neuroscience. 3 Credits.

An introduction to the biological basis of behavior. Focuses on two main themes: the cellular, molecular, and genetic processes that form the foundation of nervous system function and the systems-level organization of the nervous system that forms the foundation of human and animal behavior.
Corequisites: Concurrent registration in PSY130D is required. Offered: Spring. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in biology.

PSY130D • Introduction to Neuroscience Lab. 1 Credit.

Laboratory experience accompanying PSY130.
Corequisites: Concurrent registration in PSY130 is required. Offered: Spring. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in biology.

PSY203 • Lifespan Development. 3 Credits.

Physical, cognitive, emotional, social, moral, and spiritual development from conception to death. Includes a consistent focus on individual differences.
Prerequisites: PSY100. Offered: Fall, spring. Special Notes: Students may not receive credit for PSY203 if they receive credit for PSY206.

PSY206 • Child and Adolescent Development. 3 Credits.

Interacting processes of physical, cognitive, social, emotional, moral, and spiritual development from conception through adolescence. Includes observations of children.
Prerequisites: PSY100. Offered: Fall. Special Notes: Students may not receive credit for both PSY206 and PSY203.

PSY211 • Adult Development and Aging. 3 Credits.

Interacting processes of physical, cognitive, social, emotional, moral, and spiritual development and change from early adulthood until death.
Prerequisites: PSY100. Offered: Spring

PSY215 • Social Psychology. 3 Credits.

Behavior and experience of individuals and groups in relation to other individuals and groups. Theory, method, and findings in areas such as conformity, persuasion, social cognition, attraction, altruism, aggression, prejudice, group behavior, and applied topics.
Prerequisites: PSY100. Offered: Fall, spring

PSY230M • Introduction to Statistical Methods and Experimental Design. 4 Credits.

Descriptive, correlational, and inferential statistics, plus experimental design. Parametric and nonparametric statistical techniques are taught with emphasis on designing and conducting two-group experiments and analyzing the data.
Offered: Fall, spring. Special Notes: Students may not receive credit for both PSY230M and MAT207M.

PSY300 • Abnormal Psychology. 3 Credits.

Classification, causes, symptoms, and treatment of various forms of psychopathology. Analysis of Christian and secular perspectives of psychopathology and a survey of some major issues in the field of mental health.
Prerequisites: PSY100. Offered: Fall, spring

PSY304 • Introduction to Forensic Psychology. 3 Credits.

Provides students the opportunity to explore psychological and social processes in the legal, judicial, and criminal investigation systems. Emphasis is placed upon students developing the capacity to evaluate relevant research critically in order to better appreciate both the value and the limitations of research. Secondary emphasis is placed upon theory development and application in forensic psychology.
Prerequisites: An introductory social sciences course (PSY100, SOC101, or ANT200U); a quantitative research course in the social sciences (PSY230M or SCS351); or consent of instructor. Offered: Fall, even # years

PSY305 • Personality. 3 Credits.

Examination of traditional and contemporary theories of personality, with an emphasis on comparing and contrasting these theories. Explores non-western and Christian perspectives of the description and development of personality.
Prerequisites: PSY100. Offered: Spring

PSY308G • Cross-Cultural Psychology. 3 Credits.

Behavior and experience related to cultural differences. Theory, method, and findings in areas of cognition, social psychology, and applied concerns. Specific people groups may be emphasized.
Prerequisites: [GES130; GES160; Contemporary Western Life and Thought (L) course; World Cultures (U) course] or [GES244; World Cultures (U) course]. Offered: Spring

PSY310 • Addiction and Recovery. 3 Credits.

Psychological, physiological, and causal aspects of addiction, with emphasis on understanding the experience of persons with addiction. Addictions studied include drugs, alcohol, gambling, sex, and the internet. Also covers family issues related to addiction, models of recovery, and treatment options. Integration of Christianity with this topic throughout the course.
Prerequisites: PSY100. Offered: Interim

PSY313G • Families in Cross-cultural Perspective. 3 Credits.

Contemporary, historical, and cross-cultural, predominantly non-Western perspective on a variety of family systems and the people living in them. Explores values and assumptions underlying these systems, roles, intergenerational relationships, identity formation, and developmental tasks.
Prerequisites: [GES130; Contemporary Western Life and Thought (L) course; World Cultures (U) course] or [GES246; World Cultures (U) course]. Offered: Fall

PSY315 • History of Psychology. 3 Credits.

Historical roots of contemporary psychology. Focus is on the influence of historical trends, people, and events on the evolution of psychological questions, constructs, methods, and issues.
Prerequisites: PSY100; junior or senior standing. Offered: Occasionally fall, occasionally spring

PSY316 • Consciousness: Psychology and Philosophy in Dialogue. 3 Credits.

A team-taught investigation of ancient, medieval, and modern philosophies of consciousness and the historical roots of contemporary psychology. Shows how philosophical and psychological theories of consciousness transcend disciplinary boundaries. Focuses on interaction between philosophy and psychology, emphasizing the origins of cognitive science in philosophy of mind and consciousness.
Prerequisites: PSY100 or one philosophy course. Offered: Occasionally. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in philosophy.

PSY317 • Political Psychology. 3 Credits.

Political psychology is concerned with the causes, dynamics, and consequences of human thinking and action in the context of politics. This field survey covers the psychology of decision making, political attitude formation, public opinion, personality and emotions, intergroup relations, ideology, and the role of mass media in politics.
Prerequisites: One political science course. Offered: Fall, odd # years. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in political science.

PSY320Z • European Pioneers in Psychology. 3 Credits.

A study-abroad experience that explores prominent European figures in the history of psychology within the context of the major historical currents and schools. Study of the cultural, philosophical, intellectual, and spiritual roots of psychological theory—especially in connection with our host countries. Site and museum visits, and encounters with local professional and academic psychologists.
Prerequisites: PSY100; GES130 or GES244; junior or senior standing; permission of instructors; timely completion of application process. Offered: Occasionally interim

PSY323 • Motivation and Emotion. 4 Credits.

How biological, environmental, cognitive, emotional, and personal systems interact to initiate and direct human behavior. How experimental psychologists study emotional and motivational systems. Topics covered include hunger and eating, love and sexual behavior, arousal and peak performance, aggression, emotional stress and health, negative and positive emotions, curiosity, creativity, and self-esteem.
Prerequisites: PSY100; PSY230M. Offered: Fall

PSY325G • Psychology of Religion. 3 Credits.

Topics of central importance within many world religions (e.g., wisdom, love) are examined through various psychological theories and empirical findings. Major emphasis on developing the capacity to understand religious behavior and experience from the psychological and religious perspectives studied in the course, regardless of the extent to which one agrees or disagrees with a particular viewpoint.
Prerequisites: [GES130; GES160; Contemporary Western Life and Thought (L) course; World Cultures (U) course] or [GES244; World Cultures (U) course]. Offered: Spring

PSY330 • Disabilities and Giftedness. 4 Credits.

Focus on the development of individuals with disabilities and giftedness from a lifespan perspective. Cognitive, physical, emotional, and sociocultural variables relevant to developmental delay; giftedness; learning disabilities; physical, sensory, and communication disabilities; emotional disturbance; and multiple disabilities. Critical analysis ofpsychosocial educational interventions. Service learning with those with disabilities.
Prerequisites: EDU240, PSY203, PSY206, or PSY211; junior standing. Offered: Fall

PSY335 • Tests and Measurement. 4 Credits.

Methods of assessing human behavior and the nature and significance of individual differences. Includes basic psychometric theory; principles of test construction; and theory and utilization of current standardized tests of intelligence, achievement, and personality.
Prerequisites: PSY100; PSY230M. Offered: Spring

PSY337K • Behavioral Robotics. 3 Credits.

Control and automation are fundamental aspects of human, animal, and machine behavior. These topics will be considered from philosophical and psychological perspectives and explored through robotics and other hands-on experimental labs, in order to develop both a practical and theoretical understanding of behavior.
Prerequisites: Laboratory Science (D) course; Mathematics (M) course. Offered: Occasionally interim, occasionally spring. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in computer science.

PSY340 • Physiological Psychology. 3 Credits.

Physiological and neuroanatomical mechanisms underlying behavior; sensory mechanisms, wakefulness, and attention processes; and brain mechanisms of aggression, fear, pain, thirst, reproductive behavior, learning, and discrimination processes.
Prerequisites: PSY100; Mathematics (M) course. Offered: Fall

PSY341 • Physiological Psychology Lab. 1 Credit.

Lab accompanying PSY340.
Corequisites: PSY340. Offered: Fall.

PSY346 • Animal Behavior. 3 Credits.

Behavior from primitive invertebrates to advanced mammals, highlighting trends in behavior systems. Natural setting studies in the ethology tradition, comparative psychology studies, and biosociological principles with their implications for human social systems.
Prerequisites: One course in biology or PSY100. Offered: Spring, odd # years. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in biological sciences.

PSY347 • Animal Behavior Lab. 1 Credit.

Laboratory course accompanying PSY346.
Corequisites: Concurrent enrollment in PSY346 is required. Offered: Spring, odd # years. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in biological sciences.

PSY348 • Conditioning and Learning. 3 Credits.

Basic procedures of classical and operant conditioning, theories of learning, and applications of behavioral conditioning principles to selected problems in human learning. Includes laboratory experiences.
Prerequisites: PSY100; Mathematics (M) course. Corequisites: PSY349 must be taken concurrently. Offered: Spring

PSY349 • Conditioning and Learning Lab. 1 Credit.

Lab accompanying PSY348.
Prerequisites: PSY100; Mathematics (M) course. Corequisites: PSY348. Offered: Spring

PSY350 • Cognitive Psychology. 4 Credits.

Psychological theory and research concerning thinking, memory, reasoning, language, and problem solving. Includes laboratory experience.
Prerequisites: PSY100; PSY230M. Offered: Spring

PSY355 • Research Principles and Laboratory. 4 Credits.

Research methods in psychology in the context of designing independent research. Standard research designs (experimental, quasi-experimental, and non-experimental) are evaluated in terms of threats to internal and external validity. Factorial designs, analysis of variance, and regression models are introduced.
Prerequisites: PSY100; PSY230M. Offered: Fall, spring

PSY357 • Research Seminar. 3 Credits.

Students develop a research project with faculty supervision in preparation for independent research. Seminar format allows for in-depth analysis of contemporary issues in the field of psychological science, and students apply these issues to their personal projects.
Prerequisites: PSY100, PSY230M, PSY355, and consent of instructor Offered: Spring.

PSY399 • Topics in Psychology. 3 Credits.

Contemporary concerns in psychology not covered in the current formal course offerings of the department.
Prerequisites: PSY100. Offered: Occasionally

PSY400 • Principles of Counseling and Psychotherapy. 4 Credits.

Introduction and analysis of major therapy systems from Christian and secular perspectives, basic counseling techniques, and current ethical issues facing the counseling professions. Designed for students planning graduate study in human services.
Prerequisites: PSY100; PSY300 or PSY305. Offered: Fall, spring

PSY430 • Advanced Psychopathology. 4 Credits.

Explores issues pertaining to the nature and occurrence of psychological disorders, including classification, cultural context, developmental considerations, etiology, and treatment. Critical evaluation of contemporary theory and research, including conceptualizations, methodologies, and statistical approaches.
Prerequisites: PSY230M; PSY300. Offered: Fall

PSY440 • Sensation and Perception. 4 Credits.

A study of how the brain receives and interprets information from the environment. The biological operation of each of the senses is covered, as well as how the action of sense organs is translated into meaningful perceptions.
Prerequisites: PSY100; at least one of the following: PSY340, BIO100/100D, BIO104/104D, BIO118/118D, BIO122/122D. Offered: Spring, odd # years

PSY481 • Internship in Psychology. 3-4 Credits.

A directed experience relevant to psychology in an off-campus setting.
Prerequisites: Consent of supervising instructor. Offered: Fall, spring

PSY493 • Psychology Internship and Seminar. 4 Credits.

A professionally supervised, applied learning experience in the work world. The senior internship includes a seminar component in which students meet regularly with the Bethel faculty supervisor. This structured experience will facilitate students’ processing of their internship experiences and offer a forum for discussion of internship-related issues.
Prerequisites: Psychology major; senior standing; minimum 2.25 GPA in psychology courses, 2.0 cumulative. Offered: Fall, spring, summer

PSY498 • Research. 2-4 Credits.

Work with a psychology faculty member on an empirical research project. Emphasis on the use of research methodology, techniques, and psychological theory. The work may be spread over two semesters.
Prerequisites: Major in psychology; invitation of supervising faculty member; PSY230M. Grade exceptions: Graded on an S/U basis. Offered: Fall, spring

PSY499 • Senior Seminar. 3 Credits.

Foundational issues in psychology and the interface of psychology, Christianity, and other disciplines. Includes an in-depth individual writing project.
Prerequisites: Major in psychology; senior standing. Offered: Fall, spring

REL201 • Religion and Art in Asia. 3 Credits.

Examination of artistic expressions of the major religious traditions of India, China, Japan, and Southeast Asia. Definitions of “religion” and “art” provide a guide for identifying and understanding Asian architecture, statuary, and paintings. Doctrinal and ritual elements of the major traditions are explained, and art that symbolizes and expresses these elements is analyzed.
Offered: Spring, even # years. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in art.

REL202 • Introduction to Religious Studies. 3 Credits.

An introduction to the world’s religious traditions and to the history and methods of religious studies as a discipline. Using primary and secondary sources, this course focuses on affirmations regarding ultimate reality as it relates to the meaning and purpose of human existence within various religious and cultural contexts.
Prerequisites: GES130 (may be taken concurrently) or GES244 (may be taken concurrently). Offered: Fall or spring

REL205U • Religions of India, China and Japan. 3 Credits.

Introduction to the study of religion and its application to religions of India, China, and Japan. The origin, development, and diversity of major and minor religions including Hindu, Buddhist, Confucian, and Shinto traditions through reading primary and secondary literature. The spread and importance of these traditions in America is demonstrated.
Prerequisites: GES130 (may be taken concurrently) or GES244 (may be taken concurrently). Offered: Fall

REL206UZ • Religious Traditions in Asia: Thailand. 3 Credits.

Formal academic study, direct observation of, and interaction with the Buddhist, Muslim, Christian, and traditional religions on location in Thailand. The rich presence of mosques, pagodas, temples, churches, and shrines supported by the respective communities of faith provides the opportunity to engage with living representatives and with the concrete manifestations of the traditions. Interaction with representatives of the religions supplement academic learning.
Prerequisites: GES130 (may be taken concurrently) or GES244 (may be taken concurrently). Offered: Occasionally interim

REL212U • History of Islam. 3 Credits.

Introduces the religion of Islam from its inception and development to Islam as it is practiced worldwide today. Students interact with members of the Islamic community in Minnesota in an attempt to understand Islam from the personal experiences of Muslims. Contemporary issues and controversies are examined through the lens of the Muslim experience throughout history.
Prerequisites: GES130 (may be taken concurrently) or GES244 (may be taken concurrently). Offered: Spring. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in history.

REL225L • New Religious Movements. 3 Credits.

History, beliefs, and practices of the major alternative religions active in America today, including Mormonism, Jehovah’s Witnesses, offshoots of Eastern religious traditions, and the New Age movement. Relationships of these movements to their parent traditions are discussed and comparative analyses drawn.
Prerequisites: BIB101; GES130 (may be taken concurrently) or GES244 (may be taken concurrently). Offered: Occasionally

REL230L • Politics and Religion in the United States. 3 Credits.

Examines the historical and contemporary relationship between religion and politics in the United States. Divisions and political affiliations of various religious communities are considered alongside discussion of secularism, pluralism, and civil religion in America.
Prerequisites: GES130 (may be taken concurrently) or GES244 (may be taken concurrently). Offered: Interim. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in political science.

REL328G • Muslim Women in History. 3 Credits.

Global survey of the lives of Muslim women from the 7th century to the present. Examination of how Muslim women’s lives have historically been shaped by their social context, with particular attention to religious interpretation and expression, culture, ethnicity, and geographic location.
Prerequisites: [GES130; Contemporary Western Life and Thought (L) course; World Cultures (U) course] or [GES246; World Cultures (U) course]. Offered: Interim. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in history.

REL356 • Judaism. 3 Credits.

Exploration of the diverse political, religious, and social expressions of Judiasm through study of the significance of the Jewish liturgical year in original contexts, medieval and modern European contexts, and American contexts.
Prerequisites: [GES120; Contemporary Western Life and Thought (L) course; World Cultures (U) course] or [GES246; World Cultures (U) course]. Offered: Occasionally

REL401 • Christianity and the World's Religions. 3 Credits.

Exploration of the historical and contemporary relationships of Christianity and various world religions, specifically focused at the theological level. Focus rotates from year to year, emphasizing the interfaith dialogue between Christianity and one other world religious tradition.
Prerequisites: BIB101; THE201. Offered: Occasionally. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in biblical and theological studies.

RES201 • Introduction to Reconciliation Studies. 3 Credits.

Overview of theory and literature in the field, contributing factors leading to the need for reconciliation in our world, and paradigms for reconciliation praxis. Biblically based principles and processes for moving toward societal reconciliation. Cultural and religious diversity, conflict resolution, spiritual disciplines, social and economic justice issues (racism, sexism, classism), and related subjects are covered.
Offered: Fall, spring.

RES207U • Martin Luther King Jr., Malcolm X, and Our Multicultural World. 3 Credits.

Compares and contrasts the lives and messages of Martin Luther King, Jr. and Malcolm X with an application to the present world situation. Each leader is examined within the context of African-American culture and religion, the broader cultural diversity of the United States, and the rest of the world.
Prerequisites: GES130 (may be taken concurrently) or GES244 (may be taken concurrently). Offered: Fall, spring

RES215 • European American Experiences, Whiteness, and Reconciliation. 3 Credits.

Explores how family history and upbringing influence understanding of whiteness. Since ideological constructions of whiteness are linked to various injustices confronting people of color, students will wrestle with how to adopt practices within the spirit of reconciliation that break down walls of division for the greater good. PQ; Sophomore Standing.

RES220 • Hip-Hop, The Spoken Word, and Reconciliation. 3 Credits.

Engages Hip-Hop and the spoken word as our modern-day Psalms: raw, uncompromising, challenging, confrontational, and confessional. Explores how a conversation among Hip-Hop, the spoken word, and biblical stories cultivate a relationship with God as transparant as the Psalms and Jesus' own relationship with his Father.
Prerequisites: Sophomore Stanidng. Offered: Spring

RES305 • Conflict Resolution and Mediation Skills. 3 Credits.

Provides practical peacemaking and reconciliation skills relevant to helping Christians resolve conflict in a healthy, balanced way. Focus on using experiential learning to develop negotiation and mediation skills.
Prerequisites: RES201. Offered: Fall, spring

RES310Z • Conflict, Reconciliation, and the Church. 3 Credits.

Ministry in an urban, multicultural context. Emphasizes biblical, theological, and historical themes of reconciliation, diversity, poverty, and justice. Experiences include homeless shelters, youth ministry centers, and the religious and cultural life of a major city.
Prerequisites: THE201; junior standing. Corequisites: Carries cross-listing in biblical and theological studies and missional ministries. Offered: Interim.

RES315 • Social Responsibility in the Marketplace. 3 Credits.

Using multidisciplinary perspective, the course explores the different ways and dimensions that businesses relate to society and the nature of reciprocal relationship (whether good or bad) between the two social entities. Examines contrasting ethical arguments in historical contexts about the role of business in society. Considerable time will be spent discussing ways that healthy relationships can be promoted between business and society for the benefit of both entities.
Prerequisites: [GES130; World Cultures (U) course] or [GES246; World Cultures (U) course]. Offered: Fall. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in sociocultural studies.

RES320 • The Power of Story and Reconciliation. 3 Credits.

Explores complex stories that can nurture cultural humility and empathy. Includes readings of creative and biblical narratives with emphasis on listening deeply to others' experiences. Confronts a world divided by difference and explores how stories can foster understanding between peoples.
Prerequisites: Sophomore standing.

RES481 • Internship in Reconciliation Studies. 3-4 Credits.

Practical learning experience to apply understanding and skills of reconciliation studies in a real-world setting.
Prerequisites: RES201; major in reconciliation studies; junior or senior standing. Offered: Spring

RES499 • Senior Seminar in Reconciliation Studies. 4 Credits.

Prepares students to use the lenses of Christ-centered biblical “reconciliation” theology, critical thinking, multicultural perspectives, social change analysis, and conflict resolution skills for leadership in the work of reconciliation in society. Students study theoretical underpinnings of reconciliation studies and leadership models of reconciliation practice. A service-learning component is required.
Prerequisites: RES201; senior standing. Offered: Fall

SOC101 • Introduction to Sociology. 3 Credits.

Major concepts, theories, methodologies, findings, controversies, and history of sociology. Contributions of sociology to Christian life and thought.
Offered: Fall, spring.

SOC205 • Introduction to Global Social Problems. 3 Credits.

Introduction to global awareness and citizenship. Analyzes social problems and challenges facing the world, including the United States, with a view to action. Emphasizes interaction between global and local issues, and how solutions require broad cooperation. Topics may include education, energy, gender, health, population, social class, technology, urbanization, and work.
Prerequisites: GES160, [GES130 or GES244]. Offered: Interim

SOC229U • Interaction with Urban Life and Systems. 3 Credits.

Experientially based introduction to the religious, ethnic, and economic diversity of urban life. Formal and informal interrelationships of people living in the urban environment and various models for approaching urban ministry. Students explore the reality of living in urban life through intensive study of and interaction with a specific cultural group that lies outside the majority culture(s) found in North America. Students are encouraged to understand their own feelings and social roles.
Prerequisites: GES130 (may be taken concurrently) or GES244 (may be taken concurrently). Offered: Interim

SOC242U • Race, Ethnicity, and Peacemaking. 3 Credits.

Explores the historical evolution of race and ethnicity in Latin America, especially their creation, perpetuation, and legitimization as concepts. Examines the consequences for various social groups. Includes the intersection of local and global socio-cultural, political, and economic forces. Analyzes the historical role of the Christianity in engaging race and ethnicity.
Prerequisites: GES130 (may be taken concurrently) or GES244 (may be taken concurrently) POS202U or POS310 recommended. Offered: Spring

SOC280 • Urbanization. 3 Credits.

Cross-cultural and comparative study of urban development, form, and heterogeneity in advanced industrial societies and countries of the Global South, Central, and Eastern Europe, and Eurasia. Examination of the rise of cities, their growth in the United States and worldwide, and their functions. Issues of housing, crime, gangs, governance, and other urban issues. Students visit various cities as part of course study.
Offered: Fall.

SOC304G • Sociology of Crime and Deviance. 3 Credits.

Introduction to comparative criminal justice systems, and the role of the police, the courts, and correction institutions in both developed and developing societies. Cross-cultural and comparative analysis of theories and data used to analyze criminal behavior and deviance. How the media and crime-control agencies shape understanding of crime.
Prerequisites: [GES130; GES160; Contemporary Western Life and Thought (L) course; World Cultures (U) course] or [GES244; World Cultures (U) course] POS202U or POS310 recommended. Offered: Fall, even # years

SOC305Z • Intentional Urban Living I. 2 Credits.

Intensive urban learning opportunity involving exploration and analysis of urban community, urban neighborhood social and political structures, and theological issues that arise in an urban context. Involves living in an urban neighborhood in Minneapolis or St. Paul and substantial interaction in the neighborhood.
Offered: Fall.

SOC306Z • Intentional Urban Living II. 2 Credits.

Intensive urban learning opportunity involving exploration and analysis of urban community, urban neighborhood social and political structures, and theological issues that arise in an urban context. Involves living in an urban neighborhood in Minneapolis or St. Paul and substantial interaction in the neighborhood. Involves an individualized research project and/or action project focused on a change initiative.
Offered: Spring.

SOC315 • Social Responsibility in the Marketplace. 3 Credits.

Explores the nature of the reciprocal relationship between businesses and society from a multi-disciplinary perspective. Examines contrasting ethical arguments in historical contexts about the role of business in society. Discusses how healthy relationships can be promoted between business and society for the benefit of both.
Prerequisites: [GES130; World Cultures (U) course] or [GES246; World Cultures (U) course]. Offered: Fall. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in reconciliation studies.

SOC318G • The Urban Church. 3 Credits.

Taught on site in cities around the world (e.g., Amsterdam). Students research the challenges of urban communities and help local churches develop church-based responses to these challenges. Intensive interaction with urban communities and churches. Method for applied and experiential learning in response to social needs.
Prerequisites: [GES130; Contemporary Western Life and Thought (L) course; World Cultures (U) course] or [GES246; World Cultures (U) course]. Offered: Interim, odd # years

SOC324 • Criminal Justice in American Society. 3 Credits.

Grounded in the philosophy of criminal law, theories of deviance, and the nature and extent of crime in America, students are introduced to the American criminal justice system. Examination of the theory, structure, and operation of its principal components. Assessment of how well this system serves the aims of justice.
Offered: Spring.

SOC330G • Sociology of Third World Development. 3 Credits.

Critically examines economic development theories and sociological issues for developing Third World countries. Strategies for promoting economic development and cultural change internationally, regionally, nationally, and locally. How changes intersect and affect Latin America, Africa, Asia, and the Middle East. Issues and processes involved in community development in a globalized society. Prerequisites: Must be enrolled in Bethel’s Guatemala Term program; .
Prerequisites: [GES130; GES160; Contemporary Western Life and Thought (L) course; World Cultures (U) course] or [GES244; World Cultures (U) course]. Offered: Spring

SOC340Z • Principles and Methods of Intercultural Leadership. 4 Credits.

Grounded in a cross-cultural experience, focuses on practical principles and methods for intercultural visioning, administration, training, and communication for cross-cultural work. Emphasizes developing intercultural competencies needed for collaborative and mutually beneficial outcomes in diverse environments (e.g., mission or ministry; profit and not-for-profit; governmental or agency work).
Prerequisites: Junior or Senior Standing or permission of the instructor. Offered: Spring

SOC350 • Qualitative Research Methods. 4 Credits.

Qualitative methodologies in the social sciences, with a particular focus in ethnographic field technologies. Interview and observation skills through field work in the Twin Cities area.
Prerequisites: World Cultures (U) course. Offered: Spring

SOC351 • Quantitative Research Methods. 4 Credits.

Study of quantifying social life to answer research questions. Focus on structuring of inquiry (research design, conceptualization, measurement, sampling), modes of quantitative observation (experiments, survey research, content analysis, evaluation research), analysis of data (univariate, bivariate, and multivariate statistics), and research ethics. Students participate in actual quantitative research.
Offered: Fall.

SOC361 • Sociocultural Theory. 4 Credits.

Process of theory formation in the social sciences and concern with the relations between epistemology, analysis, and theory formation.
Prerequisites: One anthropology, sociology, or sociocultural studies course. Offered: Fall

SOC372G • Religion in Society. 3 Credits.

Comparative cross-cultural study of the social and cultural bases of religion in advanced industrial societies and non-Western cultures. Characteristic myths, beliefs, practices, and rituals of religious systems; the relationship between religious and other dimensions of social life; the factors underlying the development, persistence, manipulation, and change of religious organizations.
Prerequisites: [GES130; GES160; Contemporary Western Life and Thought (L) course; World Cultures (U) course] or [GES244; World Cultures (U) course]. Offered: Interim

SOC379G • Mission in the 21st Century. 3 Credits.

Comparative analysis of the social and cultural nature of the modern mission enterprise, its history and development, structure, and dynamics. Introduction to principles of missiology. Exploration and analysis of the intercultural nature of missions, with particular attention paid to the contribution of both first- and third-world participants.
Prerequisites: [GES130; Contemporary Western Life and Thought (L) course; World Cultures (U) course] or [GES246; World Cultures (U) course]. Offered: Fall

SOC381G • Urbanism: A Way of Life. 3 Credits.

Comparative study of urban life and urban social and cultural forces. Ways in which humans construct community; develop distinct urban lifestyles; and interact across social, ethnic, and religious boundaries. Special attention given to implications for urban planning, community development, and urban ministry.
Prerequisites: [GES130; Contemporary Western Life and Thought (L) course; World Cultures (U) course] or [GES246; World Cultures (U) course]. Offered: Fall

SOC385 • Cross-Cultural Exp Guatemala. 4 Credits.

An intensive experience of living and communicating in another culture for a minimum of two months in Guatemala. Student is fully immersed in the culture as much as possible and is guided by a mentor from the host culture.
Prerequisites: Must be enrolled in Bethel’s Guatemala Term program. Grade exceptions: Graded on an S/U basis. Offered: Guatemala Term, spring. Special Notes: Students may receive credit for only one of the following: SCS385, SCS387Z, or SCS389.

SOC387Z • Cross Cultural Experience. 4 Credits.

An intensive experience of living and communicating in another culture for a minimum of two months. Student is fully immersed in the culture as much as possible and guided by a mentor from the host culture.
Prerequisites: ANT200U; Systems (G) course; application approved by the department prior to the experience. Grade exceptions: Graded on an S/U basis. Offered: Occasionally. Special Notes: Students may receive credit for only one of the following: SCS385, SCS387Z, or SCS389.

SOC389 • Cross-Cultural Missions Practicum. 4 Credits.

An intensive ministry experience in a cross-cultural setting for a minimum of one month. Student is fully immersed in the culture, involved in hands-on ministry, and is guided by a mentor from the host culture.
Prerequisites: consent of department. Grade exceptions: Graded on an S/U basis. Offered: Occasionally. Special Notes: Students may receive credit for only one of the following: SCS385, SCS387Z, or SCS389.

SOC481 • Internship in Sociology. 3-4 Credits.

A work-related, hands-on learning experience in an off-campus professional setting. Students are mentored by an experienced professional in the field, and overseen by a departmental faculty member.
Prerequisites: Major in sociology; junior or senior standing.

SOC499 • Senior Seminar. 4 Credits.

A culminating experience to put to use knowledge and skills gained during studies done in the department. A guided research project is completed in consultation with members of the department.
Prerequisites: Major in sociocultural studies; two of the following courses: SCS350, SCS351, SCS361; senior standing. Offered: Spring

SOW200Z • Introduction to Social Work. 4 Credits.

Overview of social work mission, core values, history, and fields of practice. Understanding dimensions of diversity, cultures, and structures that may oppress and marginalize people groups. Significant cross-cultural, community-based service learning in which students communicate and collaborate with diverse individuals. Consideration of social work as career choice.
Prerequisites: Sophomore standing; major in social work or consent of instructor. Offered: Fall, spring

SOW250 • Social Welfare History. 3 Credits.

Examines the historical movements of social welfare responses to the poor and oppressed from the colonial period to the present, with emphasis on economic, demographic, cultural, and political forces. Historical documents representing significant turning points in society are presented to gain appreciation of the linkage among past, present, and future reforms.
Offered: Spring.

SOW304 • Social Work Practice I. 3 Credits.

Generalist social work theory and practice with organizations and communities. Application of human behavior in the social environment. Research-based knowledge emphasized. Assignments in community settings focus on engagement and assessment; dimensions of diversity; interaction of social systems; and strategies to promote human and civil rights.
Prerequisites: SOW200Z; major in social work. Corequisites: Must be taken concurrently with SOW330; SOW313. Offered: Fall

SOW305 • Social Policy Practice. 4 Credits.

Interrelationship of social problems, social welfare policies, and service delivery from historical, economic, political, and program perspectives. Social systems content applied to social policy analysis. Students develop, analyze, advocate, and provide leadership for policy and service delivery that promote economic and social justice through community-based projects.
Prerequisites: Major in social work. (Non-majors may take course only with consent of instructor.) Offered: Spring

SOW313 • Social Work Practice II. 3 Credits.

Generalist social work theory and practice with individuals and families. Beginning professional development, critical thinking, effective communication, Human Behavior and the Social Environment (HBSE), ethical and evidenced-based practice is emphasized. Simulated case assignments provide student development of knowledge and skills of social work practice: engagement, assessment, planning, intervention, evaluation, and termination.
Prerequisites: SOW200Z; major in social work. Corequisites: Must be taken concurrently with SOW330; SOW304. Offered: Fall

SOW327G • Social Perspective, Human Worth, and Social Action. 3 Credits.

Examines historical and current societal conditions and their impact on individuals and communities. Culture, power, oppression, exclusion, and the impact of diverse realities in the U.S. are explored. Engages students in a comparative examination through the synthesis of contemporary writings, social theory, and diverse voices. Experiential learning and dialogue promotes deepened understanding, justice seeking strategies, and social action.
Prerequisites: [GES130; GES160; Contemporary Western Life and Thought (L) course; World Cultures (U) course] or [GES244; World Cultures (U) course]. Offered: Spring

SOW330 • Social Work Field Experience I. 2 Credits.

Provides an introductory field experience in a multi-service community-based agency serving an ethnically diverse population. Students apply and integrate beginning knowledge, values, skills, and ethics for social work practice with an emphasis on developing a professional identity. Weekly on-campus field seminar supports this integration while students work a minimum of 80 hours in a field setting under agency supervision.
Prerequisites: SOW200Z; major in social work. Corequisites: Must be taken concurrently with SOW304; SOW313. Offered: Fall

SOW331 • Social Work Field Experience II. 2 Credits.

Field experience in which students apply and integrate beginning knowledge, values, skills, and ethics for social work practice with an emphasis on diversity, human rights and justice, and professional generalist practice. Weekly on-campus field seminar supports integration while students work a minimum of 100 hours in field setting under agency supervision.
Prerequisites: SOW304; SOW313; SOW330; major in social work; admission to the Social Work Program; admission to the Social Work Field Program. Offered: Spring

SOW351 • Methods of Applied Social Research. 4 Credits.

Social research methods, including an emphasis on becoming proficient and critical consumers of research-based data, for the purposes of knowledge advancement, informed practice, and program and practice effectiveness evaluation.
Prerequisites: Mathematics (M) course; introductory course in the social and behavioral sciences. PSY230M recommended. Offered: Fall

SOW405 • Social Work Practice III. 4 Credits.

Generalist social work theory and practice with systems of all sizes. Emphasis on groups including task and treatment, group dynamics, leadership, and development of group work model. Case studies promote application of critical thinking, cultural competency skills, and research-informed practice.
Prerequisites: SOW200Z; SOW304; SOW313; SOW330; SOW331; admission to the Social Work Program. Corequisites: Must be taken concurrently with SOW432. Offered: Fall

SOW431 • Conversations about End of Life. 1 Credit.

Development of advance care planning (ACP) facilitation skills in the context of faith, cultural, healthcare system, and societal perspectives. A First Steps ACP Facilitator Certificate is available for students who successfully complete ACP Facilitator requirements.
Prerequisites: Senior standing in nursing or social work, or consent of instructor. Offered: Spring. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in nursing.

SOW432 • Social Work Field Instruction I. 3 Credits.

Field practicum in a practice setting in which students perform the role of a professional social worker under supervision of a qualified field instructor. Weekly on-campus field seminar, facilitated by social work faculty, supports integration of theory with social work practice. Students work a minimum of 135 hours in field. A structured learning contract provides application of social work knowledge, values, and skills.
Prerequisites: Admission to the Social Work Program; admission to the Social Work Field Program. Corequisites: Must be taken concurrently with SOW405. Offered: Fall

SOW433 • Social Work Field Instruction II. 3 Credits.

A continuation of SOW432. Time involvement must total a minimum of 135 hours in the field. Satisfactory progress must be made toward competence in professional social work practice.
Prerequisites: SOW432. Offered: Spring

SOW434 • Social Work Field Instruction III. 3 Credits.

A continuation of SOW433. Time involvement must total a minimum of 135 hours in the field. Satisfactory progress in SOW432/433/434 on field assignments, learning contract, and 400 hours of supervised practice indicate student’s readiness to perform the role of a generalist social work practitioner.
Prerequisites: SOW432. Corequisites: Must be taken concurrently with SOW433; SOW499. Offered: Spring

SOW499 • Senior Integrative Seminar. 3 Credits.

Integration of generalist social work knowledge, values, and skills through ethics-based case studies and completion of practice/program evaluation research applied to field practicum setting. Critical thinking, leadership, and scholarship emphasized.
Prerequisites: SOW405; SOW432. Corequisites: Must be taken concurrently with SOW433/434. Offered: Spring

SPA101 • Introductory Spanish I. 4 Credits.

Listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Opportunities for oral and written practice encourage actual communication in Spanish.
Prerequisites: No more than one year of high school Spanish or placement exam. Offered: Fall, spring

SPA102S • Introductory Spanish II. 4 Credits.

Continuation of functional and practical understanding and communicative use of the Spanish language. Further study of Spanish history and culture through films, discussions, and readings.
Prerequisites: SPA101 or placement exam. Offered: Fall, spring

SPA120A • Photography in Spain. 3 Credits.

Technical and conceptual acquaintance with the medium of photography and its vocabulary within the realm of high art. Includes camera operation, black and white film developing, black and white print processing, and print finishing.
Offered: Fall. Special Notes: Course taught in Spanish. Carries cross-credit in art.

SPA201 • Intermediate Spanish I. 3 Credits.

Synthesis and expansion of language study in order to further develop communicative language ability. Study of the rich cultural diversity in the Spanish-speaking world.
Prerequisites: SPA102S or placement exam. Offered: Fall, spring. Special Notes: Students may not receive credit for both SPA201 and SPA203.

SPA202UZ • Intermediate Spanish II. 4 Credits.

A further development of communicative language ability through the study of the rich cultural diversity in the Spanish-speaking world. Topics include religious practices, Hispanics in the United States, and violations of human rights. Service-learning experience required.
Prerequisites: SPA201 or placement exam; GES130 (may be taken concurrently) or GES244 (may be taken concurrently). Offered: Fall, spring. Special Notes: Students may not receive credit for both SPA202UZ and SPA204.

SPA203 • Intensive Intermediate Spanish I in Guatemala. 4 Credits.

Synthesis and expansion of language study in order to further develop communicative language ability. Study of the rich cultural diversity in the Spanish-speaking world, including topics such as family structures, racial diversity, and perspectives on death and the afterlife. Intensive one-on-one interaction with Guatemalan instructor.
Prerequisites: SPA102S or placement exam. Offered: Spring. Special Notes: Students may not receive credit for both SPA203 and SPA201.

SPA204 • Intensive Intermediate Spanish II in Guatemala. 4 Credits.

A further development of communicative language ability through the study of the rich cultural diversity in the Spanish-speaking world. Topics include religious practices, Hispanics in the United States, and violations of human rights. Intensive one-on-one interaction with Guatemalan instructor.
Prerequisites: SPA201, SPA203, or placement exam. Offered: Spring. Special Notes: Students may not receive credit for both SPA204 and SPA202UZ.

SPA208 • Spanish for Health Professionals. 3 Credits.

Designed for those studying or preparing for healthcare professions. Emphasis on building culturally and linguistically competent communication skills with Spanish-speaking immigrants in healthcare settings.
Prerequisites: SPA201, SPA203, or placement exam. Offered: Occasionally

SPA228 • Intensive Language Study in the Spanish-Speaking World. 3 Credits.

Study of the Spanish language and Hispanic culture taught in a Spanish-speaking country through an approved language school. Homestay required.
Prerequisites: Two semesters of intermediate Spanish at the college level or placement exam; consent of Department of World Languages and Cultures. Grade exceptions: Graded on an S/U bases. Offered: Interim, by arrangement. Special Notes: Program must be approved by the Department of World Languages and Cultures in advance. Enrollment is limited.

SPA290 • Ibero-American History. 3 Credits.

An examination of key historical processes in Spain, Latin America, and the Spanish-speaking communities in the United States with a focus on social, economic, political, geographic, and religious dimensions.
Prerequisites: SPA202UZ, SPA204, SPA208, or placement exam. Offered: Fall, spring

SPA291 • Ibero-American History in Guatemala. 4 Credits.

An examination of key historical processes in Spain, Latin America, and the Spanish-speaking communities in the United States with a focus on social, economic, political, geographic, and religious dimensions.
Prerequisites: SPA202UZ, SPA204, SPA208, or placement exam. Offered: Spring

SPA292 • Ibero-American History in Spain. 4 Credits.

An examination of key historical processes in Spain, Latin America, and the Spanish-speaking communities in the United States with a focus on social, economic, political, geographic, and religious dimensions.
Prerequisites: SPA202UZ or SPA208. Offered: Fall

SPA300 • Introduction to Hispanic Literature. 4 Credits.

Readings in novels, essays, short stories, poetry, newspapers, and magazines from Latin America and Spain.
Prerequisites: SPA290, SPA291 (may be taken concurrently) or SPA292 (may be taken concurrently). Offered: Fall (Spain Term) and Spring (Guatemala Term). Special Notes: Students may not receive credit for both SPA300 and SPA305.

SPA301U • Hispanic Cultures. 4 Credits.

Study of the history, traditions, cultural practices, values, and social structures of Latin America and Spain. Service-learning experience may be required.
Prerequisites: GES130 (may be taken concurrently) or GES244 (may be taken concurrently); SPA290, SPA291, or SPA292. Offered: Spring. Special Notes: Students may not receive credit for both SPA301U and SPA302U.

SPA302U • Hispanic Cultures: Guatemalan Perspectives. 4 Credits.

Study of the history, traditions, cultural practices, values, and social structures of Latin America and Spain. Intensive one-on-one interaction with on-site instructor and interviews with Guatemalans enhance understanding of cultural issues from a Guatemalan perspective.
Prerequisites: GES130 (may be taken concurrently) or GES244 (may be taken concurrently); SPA290 or SPA291(may be taken conurrently), or placement exam. Offered: Spring. Special Notes: Students may not receive credit for both SPA302U and SPA301U.

SPA303U • Historic Spain and its Cultures. 4 Credits.

Study of the multi-cultural richness of Spain in its unique history, society, politics, art, film, and music. Students participate in a series of field trips to places of cultural and historical interest in Segovia and to museums in Madrid.
Prerequisites: GES130 or GES244 (may be taken concurrently), SPA290, SPA292 (May be taken concurrenlty), or consent of instructor. Offered: Fall

SPA305 • Readings from Latin America and Spain. 3 Credits.

Readings in novels, essays, short stories, and poetry from Latin America and Spain.
Prerequisites: SPA290, SPA291, or SPA292. Offered: Fall. Special Notes: Students may not receive credit for both SPA305 and SPA300.

SPA308 • Current Issues in Guatemala. 4 Credits.

Students participating in the Guatemala Term use multiple media sources available to them only in the country and interact with Guatemalan people to learn about political, economic, and social issues. Study of a literary text dealing with political issues in Guatemala is included.
Prerequisites: SPA300 (may be taken concurrently) or SPA305. Offered: Spring

SPA312 • Contemporary Literature. 4 Credits.

Prose and poetry from selected contemporary Latin American and Spanish authors.
Prerequisites: SPA300 or SPA305. Offered: Fall, even # years

SPA313 • Classical Literature. 4 Credits.

Prose and poetry from the classical literature of Spain.
Prerequisites: SPA300 or SPA305. Offered: Fall, odd # years

SPA316 • Modern Spain: An Examination of Ethics - Spain. 4 Credits.

An examination of moral and ethical questions during the Spanish Civil War, the Franco regime, and post-Franco Spain. Topics include national unity, justice, political assassination, the responsibility of individuals in society, Basque nationalism, the role of the United States, immigration, and the role of the Catholic Church.
Prerequisites: SPA305 or concurrent enrollment in SPA300. Offered: Fall

SPA317 • Advanced Communication in Spain. 4 Credits.

Further development of communicative ability in Spanish, including reading, writing, listening, and conversational skills. Students write compositions, participate in discussions, have conversational exchanges with Spanish university students, give presentations, and read short essays.
Prerequisites:SPA301U or SPA303U (May be taken concurrently), or consent of instructor. Offered: Fall

SPA318 • Classical Literature in Spain. 4 Credits.

Prose and poetry from the classical literature of Spain.
Prerequisites: SPA305 or concurrent enrollment in SPA300. Offered: Fall. Special Notes: Students may not receive credit for both SPA318 and SPA313.

SPA322 • Advanced Spanish Communication. 4 Credits.

Further development of communicative abilities in Spainish including reading, creative and academic writing, formal and informal discussions and debate, and formal presentation skills.
Prerequisites: SPA301U, SPA302U, or SPA303U. Offered: Spring

SPA323 • Advanced Spanish Communication in Guatemala. 4 Credits.

Further development of communicative abilities in Spanish including reading, creative and academic writing, formal and informal discussions and debate, and formal presentation skills.
Prerequisites: SPA301U, SPA302U, or SPA303U (may be taken concurrently). Offered: Spring

SPA327 • Marketing and Management in Spain. 3 Credits.

Theoretical and practical concepts of marketing and management in the semi-globalized world. Understand the significant challenges globalization presents to management and marketing, specifically in the context of Spain. Business terminology and reality in a Spanish business environment.
Prerequisites: SPA202UZ. (Carries cross-credit in business.) Offered: Fall. Special Notes: The class is taught and assignments are completed in Spanish.

SPA481 • Internship in Spanish. 3-4 Credits.

Cross-cultural experience to apply and expand Spanish communication knowledge and skills in an off-campus setting. Placements must be at an organization or business within the Latino community or in the Spanish-speaking world. Must be planned in advance of placement in consultation with the Department of World Languages and Cultures.
Prerequisites: Spanish major or minor, or enrollment in Spain or Guatemala Term. Offered: Fall, interim, spring, summer

SPA499 • Senior Seminar. 4 Credits.

An in-depth study and presentation of a topic related to Hispanic cultures, literatures, or the Spanish language. Service-learning experience may be required.
Prerequisites: Major in Spanish; senior standing. Offered: Fall

TEL230 • Introduction to Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages. 3 Credits.

Overview of the field of teaching English to speakers of other languages (TESOL) for those considering employment in schools in the U.S. or abroad, or serving in missions or in the local community. Provides basic skills and resources for anyone interacting with new Americans.
Offered: Occasionally interim or spring.

TEL240 • TESOL Practicum Abroad. 1 Credit.

In consultation with the department, students select a program outside the United States in which they tutor English as a foreign language for at least three weeks. Prior to departure, students complete a study of the culture in which they will be living. Students share their experiences in a colloquium of TESL/TEFL majors upon their return.
Prerequisites: LIN210Z; consent of the Department of World Languages and Cultures. Grade exceptions: Graded on an S/U basis. Offered: By arrangement

TEL301 • Analysis of the English Language. 3 Credits.

Overview of the English language structure geared to the needs of teachers of English to speakers of other languages (both EFL and ESL). Understanding and application of English grammar and pronunciation with the purpose of being able to explain various grammatical aspects and provide answers to student questions concerning English grammar.
Prerequisites: LIN210Z or LIN300. Offered: Spring, odd # years

TEL305 • Teaching Language Skills for Second Language Learners. 3 Credits.

The principles of teaching listening and speaking skills to second language learners. Strategies for teaching language skills including using authentic materials, creating meaningful communicative activities, and teaching with Total Physical Response (TPR) and Total Profiency Through Reading and Storytelling (TPRS). Students create lesson plans and practice teaching with these strategies.
Offered: Fall.

TEL320 • Curriculum Development and Assessment. 3 Credits.

Development of curricula for EFL/ESL students in various settings and with various needs, including special education. Appropriate teaching and assessment materials for the EFL/ESL classroom.
Prerequisites: LIN210Z. Offered: Spring. Special Notes: Can be taken concurrently with EDU400.

TEL481 • Internship in TESL/TEFL. 3-4 Credits.

Supervised experience in an overseas school program or with a local agency to apply knowledge of and skills in teaching English to non-native speakers.
Prerequisites: Major or minor in TEFL. Offered: Fall, interim, spring

THA100A • Beginning Acting. 3 Credits.

Art of acting. Workshop experiences to develop personal creative talents through an exploration of performance techniques including movement, improvisation, and stage acting.
Offered: Fall, spring.

THA120A • Projects in Performance. 1 Credit.

An individual project in backstage/technical work (set building, props, lights, or costumes) or acting to be done in conjunction with the theatre productions being performed during current semester. Minimum of 30 hours. Class size depends on the needs for the individual production.
Prerequisites: Consent of department. Offered: Fall, spring even # years

THA195 • Theatre Hour. 0 Credit.

Attendance at a performance at an area theatre and discussion of topics of significance to theatre artists.
Prerequisites: Theatre major or minor. Grade exceptions: Graded on an S/U basis. Offered: Fall, spring. Special Notes: Theatre majors must register each semester in residence in order to complete the theatre attendance requirement for graduation.

THA202A • Producing and Performing a Musical. 3 Credits.

An intensive experience in the production and performance of a musical. Instruction and coaching in the unique art of musical theatre as well as direct involvement in all aspects of mounting a show according to a professional summer stock or repertory model.
Prerequisites: Audition for and be cast in the show. Offered: Interim, odd # years

THA212 • Voice Production. 3 Credits.

A group-intensive laboratory designed to explore special topics in theatre. The art of using the voice. Key skills such as projection, articulation, vocal flexibility, and vocal exercises designed to broaden and develop the vocal instrument.
Prerequisites: THA100A or consent of instructor; sophomore standing. Offered: Fall 2017

THA214 • Stage Combat. 3 Credits.

A group-intensive laboratory designed to explore special areas in theatre. Students will learn techniques of stage combat and movement including unarmed, quarterstaff, and rapier.
Prerequisites: THA100A; consent of instructor; sophomore standing. Offered: Spring 2017

THA220 • Projects in Performance. 1 Credit.

An individual project in acting, stage-managing, or design to be done in conjunction with the theatre productions being performed during current semester.
Prerequisites: Be cast in a production or consent of department. Offered: Fall, spring, interim. Special Notes: Maximum of 1 credit per area, per semester and 4 credits per four years.

THA240 • Stagecraft. 4 Credits.

Techniques used to mount a theatre production through developing and adapting the skills and creative capabilities inherent in each student. Costuming, set construction, painting and dyeing, makeup, and lighting techniques.
Prerequisites: GES125 or GES147. Offered: Spring, odd # years

THA279 • Theatre and Culture: Classical to Modern. 4 Credits.

Dynamic interrelationship of theatre and culture, focusing on the correlations among a people’s worldview; their religious, philosophical, political, and aesthetic concerns; and their dramatic art as it was brought to life on the stages of their time. Script analysis and theatrical activity of the classical, medieval, Renaissance, and neoclassical periods.
Offered: Fall, odd # years.

THA291L • Theatre in the Modern Age. 3 Credits.

Theatre’s role as a reflector and instigator of cultural change during the modern period: reli­gious, philosophical, political, social, and aesthetic. The theatrical “isms”: naturalism, realism, surrealism, symbolism, expressionism, and absurdism.
Prerequisites: GES130 or GES244 (may be taken concurrently). Offered: Spring, even # years

THA302 • Producing and Performing a Musical. 3 Credits.

Additional experience in the production and performance of a musical. Instruction and coaching in the unique art of musical theatre as well as direct involvement in all aspects of mounting a show according to a professional summer stock or repertory model.
Prerequisites: Audition for and be cast in the show; THA202A. Offered: Interim, odd # years

THA310 • Design for the Stage. 4 Credits.

Principles of costume, scenery, and lighting design. Training in communicating design through figure drawing, drafting, rendering, and model making.
Prerequisites: GES125 or GES147; sophomore standing. Offered: Spring, even # years

THA311 • Stage Dialects. 3 Credits.

A group-intensive laboratory designed to explore special topics in theatre. Learn key skills needed to create believable stage dialects such as American Southern, Brooklynese, Standard British, Cockney, Irish, and German. Develop performance skills using dialects.
Prerequisites: THA100A or consent of instructor; sophomore standing. Offered: Fall 2018

THA313 • Auditioning and Acting for the Camera. 3 Credits.

A group intensive laboratory designed to explore special topics in theatre. Techniques utilized in acting for the camera. Work in scene study, character analysis, and individual performance skills needed in acting for film, auditioning, and creating résumés.
Prerequisites: THA100A or consent of instructor; sophomore standing. Offered: Spring 2016

THA315 • Performing Shakespeare. 3 Credits.

The art of performing and acting Shakespeare. Basic key skills such as scansion and anti-thesis, and performance techniques needed to analyze and interpret Shakespearean text for performance. Group lab experiences and work with Shakespearean scenes and monologues.
Prerequisites: THA100A, ENL303 (can be taken concurrently), ENL321; THA350, junior or senior standing. Offered: Spring, odd # years

THA320 • Projects in Performance. 1 Credit.

An individual project in acting, stage-managing, or design to be done in conjunction with the theatre productions being performed during current semester.
Prerequisites: Be cast in a production or consent of department. Offered: Fall, spring, interim odd # years. Special Notes: Maximum of 1 credit per area, per semester and 4 credits per four years.

THA330 • Topics in Theatre Arts. 3 Credits.

A group-intensive laboratory designed to explore special topics in theatre such as playwriting, character/tap dance, theatre for youth and children, and other topics depending on student interest. Students may interact with theatre professionals and develop individual performance skills.
Prerequisites: Consent of instructor; sophomore standing. Offered: Occasionally

THA350 • Advanced Acting. 3 Credits.

Advanced work in scene study, character analysis, and individual performance skills.
Prerequisites: THA100A. Offered: Fall, even # years

THA360 • Musical Theatre. 3 Credits.

The identification and development of a singer-actor’s skills through classroom exercises and assignments utilizing the literature of musical theatre; process and value of group interaction and coaching. Includes various performances.
Prerequisites: THA100NA; THA202A; sophomore standing. Offered: Spring, even # years

THA405 • Directing. 4 Credits.

Directing fundamentals including: blocking, characterization, how to find and secure rights, playscript interpretation, character analysis, organization and preparing budgets, and director/actor and director/designer relationships. Development of a directoral perspective and process through play analysis and workshop experience.
Prerequisites: THA100A; junior or senior standing. Offered: Fall, even # years

THA410 • Theatrical Styles. 4 Credits.

Advanced study of various theatrical styles (Greek, Neoclassic, Commedia, Antirealism, Experimental) from an acting/directing/design perspective. Analysis of acting, directing, and design theories and workshop exercises.
Prerequisites: THA405; THA350 or THA360. Offered: Spring, odd # years

THA420 • Projects in Performance. 1 Credit.

An individual project in acting, stage-managing, or design to be done in conjunction with the theatre productions being performed during current semester.
Prerequisites: Be cast in a production or consent of department. Offered: Fall, spring, interim odd # years. Special Notes: Maximum of 1 credit per area, per semester and 4 credits per four years.

THA481 • Internship in Theatre. 3-4 Credits.

Application of skills and knowledge to off-campus theatre situations. Internships may include church, community, professional, or summer stock theatre companies.
Prerequisites: Major in theatre arts. Offered: Fall, interim, spring

THA490 • Theatre Practicum. 4 Credits.

A culminating theatre project intended to challenge the creativity and professional talents of the senior theatre arts major. Projects may include designing for a major production, performing an acting recital, directing a one-act play, writing a script, or developing an experimental project.
Prerequisites: Major in theatre arts; consent of department. Offered: Fall, interim, spring

THE201 • Christian Theology. 3 Credits.

Investigates central themes of the Christian faith from a primarily systematic perspective. Topics include Scripture, God, the person and work of Jesus Christ, salvation, and last things. Emphasis on the unity and diversity of theological beliefs within Christianity, and on the interrelationships among theological understanding, culture, and discipleship.
Prerequisites: BIB101; sophomore standing or above. Offered: Fall, interim, spring

THE235 • Current Theological Controversies. 3 Credits.

Study of a number of theological topics of contemporary interest or debate such as the Calvinism/Arminianism debate, the inerrancy of Scripture, the nature of divine foreknowledge, spiritual gifts, and end times controversies.
Prerequisites: THE201. Offered: Occasionally

THE240 • Topics in Theology. 3 Credits.

Study of a theological area or topic. The specific topic is announced when the course is offered.
Prerequisites: THE201. Offered: Occasionally

THE256L • Christian Apologetics. 3 Credits.

Study of the intellectual viability of the Christian faith. Topics include the nature of apologetics and apologetic method, theological and philosophical arguments for and against the existence of God, and historical and philosophical arguments for and against the central beliefs of Christianity.
Prerequisites: THE201 or GES246; GES130 and GES160 (may be taken concurrently) or GES244 (may be taken concurrently). Offered: Fall, interim, spring

THE263 • Christian Social Ethics. 3 Credits.

Christian approaches to ethical problems within today’s society, such as the morality of war, poverty and welfare, homelessness, racism, and human sexuality. Roles of Christians and churches in response to these issues. Classical ethical approaches of utilitarianism, Kant, and social contract ethics.
Prerequisites: BIB101; THE201. Offered: Fall or spring

THE310Z • Conflict, Reconciliation, and the Church. 3 Credits.

Ministry in an urban, multicultural context. Emphasizes biblical, theological, and historical themes of reconciliation, diversity, poverty, and justice. Experiences include homeless shelters, youth ministry centers, spiritually formative practices, and the religious and cultural life of a major city.
Prerequisites: THE201; junior standing. Offered: Interim. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in missional ministries and reconciliation studies.

THE311 • Early Church to Reformation Theology in Global Perspective. 3 Credits.

Explores the global historical development of Christian thought from the Early Church to the Reformation. Includes assessment of major figures such as Augustine and Luther, and developments such as early North African, Syeariac, Nicene, Byzantine, medieval Asian, and European theologies.
Prerequisites: BIB101; THE201 or consent of instructor. Offered: Fall

THE312L • Post-Reformation to Contemporary Theology in Trans-Atlantic Perspective. 3 Credits.

Explores the global historical development of Christian thought from the Post-Reformation era to the present. Includes assessment of major figures such as Barth, Bonhoeffer, Schleiermacher, and Wesley and developments including African, African American, Dalit, Feminist and Womanist theology, and Pietism.
Prerequisites: GES130 and GES160 (may be taken concurrently) or GES244 (may be taken concurrently). Offered: Spring

THE315 • Contemporary Theological Issues. 3 Credits.

Theoretical and practical engagement with the academic disciplines of theology. Considers contemporary theological issues facing the 21st century church and explores current research and writing in the fields of theology.
Prerequisites: THE201 or consent of the instructor. Offered: Spring

THE326G • Christian Theology in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. 3 Credits.

Introduces major theological themes and theories that have emerged in the socio-political and cultural contexts of sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Offers critical and constructive dialogue with key theological themes and issues in Black, Feminist, Liberation, Dalit, and African theologies.
Prerequisites: [GES130; GES160; Contemporary Western Life and Thought (L) course; World Cultures (U) course] or [GES244; World Cultures (U) course]. Offered: Occasionally fall

THE401 • Christianity and the World's Religions. 3 Credits.

Exploration of the historical and contemporary relationships of Christianity and various world religions, specifically focused at the theological level. Focus rotates from year to year, emphasizing the interfaith dialogue between Christianity and one other world religious tradition.
Prerequisites: BIB101; THE201. Offered: Occasionally. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in religious studies.

THE431 • Advanced Topics in Systematic Theology. 3 Credits.

Research on a topic in the area of systematic theology. The specific topic will be announced when the course is offered. Past offerings include Doctrine of God, Christology, Ecclesiology, and Pneumatology.
Prerequisites: THE201 or consent of instructor. Offered: Fall

THE432 • Advanced Topics in Historical Theology. 3 Credits.

Research on a topic in the area of historical theology. The specific topic will be announced when the course is offered. Past offerings include Barth and Bonhoeffer and History and Theology of Pietism. Spring 2017: Barth and Bonhoffer Seminar style study on the work of the two greatest Protestant theologians of the 20th century, Karl Barth and Dietrich Bonhoeffer.
Prerequisites: THE201 or consent of instructor. Offered: Occasionally

THE433 • Advanced Topics in Philosophical Theology. 3 Credits.

Research on a topic in the area of philosophical theology. The specific topic will be announced when the course is offered. Potential topics include Arguments for God’s Existence, The Problems of Evil and Hell, and Science and Theology.
Prerequisites: THE201 or consent of instructor. Offered: Occasionally

THE440 • Topics in Theology. 3 Credits.

Research course in a topic in theology. Content to be determined by the professor in conjunction with students majoring in biblical and theological studies. Usually, the course entails an advanced study of one of the major doctrines of the Christian faith.
Prerequisites: THE201 or consent of instructor. Offered: Occasionally

THE499 • Seminar: Theology. 3 Credits.

A selected topic in theology related to a course theme. A major research project is followed by an oral and written presentation of its results.
Prerequisites: Interpreting Biblical Themes (J) course; BIB321; THE315 or consent of instructor. Offered: Fall