Psychology can be defined as the scientific study of behavior and mental processes. The courses in the department are designed to acquaint students with psychological theory and the findings of psychological researchers; familiarize students with the terminology and principles of cognition and behavior; provide education in the techniques of psychological investigation with an emphasis on empirical research; study ways in which psychological principles apply to practical situations; and relate the findings of psychology to biblical Christianity. Psychology department courses interface with numerous other Bethel majors, including business, education, nursing, biology, sociocultural studies, biblical and theological studies, and many others. A Master of Arts in Counseling Psychology is offered through the Department of Psychology and is administered through the Graduate School.

The required internship is an opportunity to gain experience in a professionally supervised setting. Students’ participation in retirement facilities, hospitals, correctional facilities, drug and alcohol treatment centers, human resources departments, and a variety of other sites help refine career goals and graduate study plans as well as offer opportunities to integrate classroom learning with experience.

Major in Psychology

Minor in Psychology

PSY100 • Introduction to Psychology. 3 Credits.

Methods, theories, and principal findings of psychological investigation.
Offered: Fall, spring.

PSY105 • Personal Wholeness in Relating to Self, Others, and God. 3 Credits.

Nature and process of growth in persons. Personal wholeness in relationship with self, others, and God is explored from various spiritual and psychological perspectives. Emphasis is placed on personal application of course material to promote greater self-awareness and ability to live out healthy choices regarding areas explored in course.
Offered: Fall, interim, or spring.

PSY130 • Introduction to Neuroscience. 3 Credits.

An introduction to the biological basis of behavior. Focuses on two main themes: the cellular, molecular, and genetic processes that form the foundation of nervous system function and the systems-level organization of the nervous system that forms the foundation of human and animal behavior.
Corequisites: Concurrent registration in PSY130D is required. Offered: Spring. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in biology.

PSY130D • Introduction to Neuroscience Lab. 1 Credit.

Laboratory experience accompanying PSY130.
Corequisites: Concurrent registration in PSY130 is required. Offered: Spring. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in biology.

PSY203 • Lifespan Development. 3 Credits.

Physical, cognitive, emotional, social, moral, and spiritual development from conception to death. Includes a consistent focus on individual differences.
Prerequisites: PSY100. Offered: Fall, spring. Special Notes: Students may not receive credit for PSY203 if they receive credit for PSY206.

PSY206 • Child and Adolescent Development. 3 Credits.

Interacting processes of physical, cognitive, social, emotional, moral, and spiritual development from conception through adolescence. Includes observations of children.
Prerequisites: PSY100. Offered: Fall. Special Notes: Students may not receive credit for both PSY206 and PSY203.

PSY211 • Adult Development and Aging. 3 Credits.

Interacting processes of physical, cognitive, social, emotional, moral, and spiritual development and change from early adulthood until death.
Prerequisites: PSY100. Offered: Spring

PSY215 • Social Psychology. 3 Credits.

Behavior and experience of individuals and groups in relation to other individuals and groups. Theory, method, and findings in areas such as conformity, persuasion, social cognition, attraction, altruism, aggression, prejudice, group behavior, and applied topics.
Prerequisites: PSY100. Offered: Fall, spring

PSY230M • Introduction to Statistical Methods and Experimental Design. 4 Credits.

Descriptive, correlational, and inferential statistics, plus experimental design. Parametric and nonparametric statistical techniques are taught with emphasis on designing and conducting two-group experiments and analyzing the data.
Offered: Fall, spring. Special Notes: Students may not receive credit for both PSY230M and MAT207M.

PSY300 • Abnormal Psychology. 3 Credits.

Classification, causes, symptoms, and treatment of various forms of psychopathology. Analysis of Christian and secular perspectives of psychopathology and a survey of some major issues in the field of mental health.
Prerequisites: PSY100. Offered: Fall, spring

PSY304 • Introduction to Forensic Psychology. 3 Credits.

Provides students the opportunity to explore psychological and social processes in the legal, judicial, and criminal investigation systems. Emphasis is placed upon students developing the capacity to evaluate relevant research critically in order to better appreciate both the value and the limitations of research. Secondary emphasis is placed upon theory development and application in forensic psychology.
Prerequisites: An introductory social sciences course (PSY100, SOC101, or ANT200U); a quantitative research course in the social sciences (PSY230M or SCS351); or consent of instructor. Offered: Fall, even # years

PSY305 • Personality. 3 Credits.

Examination of traditional and contemporary theories of personality, with an emphasis on comparing and contrasting these theories. Explores non-western and Christian perspectives of the description and development of personality.
Prerequisites: PSY100. Offered: Spring

PSY308G • Cross-Cultural Psychology. 3 Credits.

Behavior and experience related to cultural differences. Theory, method, and findings in areas of cognition, social psychology, and applied concerns. Specific people groups may be emphasized.
Prerequisites: [GES130; GES160; Contemporary Western Life and Thought (L) course; World Cultures (U) course] or [GES244; World Cultures (U) course]. Offered: Spring

PSY310 • Addiction and Recovery. 3 Credits.

Psychological, physiological, and causal aspects of addiction, with emphasis on understanding the experience of persons with addiction. Addictions studied include drugs, alcohol, gambling, sex, and the internet. Also covers family issues related to addiction, models of recovery, and treatment options. Integration of Christianity with this topic throughout the course.
Prerequisites: PSY100. Offered: Interim

PSY313G • Families in Cross-cultural Perspective. 3 Credits.

Contemporary, historical, and cross-cultural, predominantly non-Western perspective on a variety of family systems and the people living in them. Explores values and assumptions underlying these systems, roles, intergenerational relationships, identity formation, and developmental tasks.
Prerequisites: [GES130; Contemporary Western Life and Thought (L) course; World Cultures (U) course] or [GES246; World Cultures (U) course]. Offered: Fall

PSY315 • History of Psychology. 3 Credits.

Historical roots of contemporary psychology. Focus is on the influence of historical trends, people, and events on the evolution of psychological questions, constructs, methods, and issues.
Prerequisites: PSY100; junior or senior standing. Offered: Occasionally fall, occasionally spring

PSY316 • Consciousness: Psychology and Philosophy in Dialogue. 3 Credits.

A team-taught investigation of ancient, medieval, and modern philosophies of consciousness and the historical roots of contemporary psychology. Shows how philosophical and psychological theories of consciousness transcend disciplinary boundaries. Focuses on interaction between philosophy and psychology, emphasizing the origins of cognitive science in philosophy of mind and consciousness.
Prerequisites: PSY100 or one philosophy course. Offered: Occasionally. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in philosophy.

PSY317 • Political Psychology. 3 Credits.

Political psychology is concerned with the causes, dynamics, and consequences of human thinking and action in the context of politics. This field survey covers the psychology of decision making, political attitude formation, public opinion, personality and emotions, intergroup relations, ideology, and the role of mass media in politics.
Prerequisites: One political science course. Offered: Fall, odd # years. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in political science.

PSY320Z • European Pioneers in Psychology. 3 Credits.

A study-abroad experience that explores prominent European figures in the history of psychology within the context of the major historical currents and schools. Study of the cultural, philosophical, intellectual, and spiritual roots of psychological theory—especially in connection with our host countries. Site and museum visits, and encounters with local professional and academic psychologists.
Prerequisites: PSY100; GES130 or GES244; junior or senior standing; permission of instructors; timely completion of application process. Offered: Occasionally interim

PSY323 • Motivation and Emotion. 4 Credits.

How biological, environmental, cognitive, emotional, and personal systems interact to initiate and direct human behavior. How experimental psychologists study emotional and motivational systems. Topics covered include hunger and eating, love and sexual behavior, arousal and peak performance, aggression, emotional stress and health, negative and positive emotions, curiosity, creativity, and self-esteem.
Prerequisites: PSY100; PSY230M. Offered: Fall

PSY325G • Psychology of Religion. 3 Credits.

Topics of central importance within many world religions (e.g., wisdom, love) are examined through various psychological theories and empirical findings. Major emphasis on developing the capacity to understand religious behavior and experience from the psychological and religious perspectives studied in the course, regardless of the extent to which one agrees or disagrees with a particular viewpoint.
Prerequisites: [GES130; GES160; Contemporary Western Life and Thought (L) course; World Cultures (U) course] or [GES244; World Cultures (U) course]. Offered: Spring

PSY330 • Disabilities and Giftedness. 4 Credits.

Focus on the development of individuals with disabilities and giftedness from a lifespan perspective. Cognitive, physical, emotional, and sociocultural variables relevant to developmental delay; giftedness; learning disabilities; physical, sensory, and communication disabilities; emotional disturbance; and multiple disabilities. Critical analysis ofpsychosocial educational interventions. Service learning with those with disabilities.
Prerequisites: EDU240, PSY203, PSY206, or PSY211; junior standing. Offered: Fall

PSY335 • Tests and Measurement. 4 Credits.

Methods of assessing human behavior and the nature and significance of individual differences. Includes basic psychometric theory; principles of test construction; and theory and utilization of current standardized tests of intelligence, achievement, and personality.
Prerequisites: PSY100; PSY230M. Offered: Spring

PSY337K • Behavioral Robotics. 3 Credits.

Control and automation are fundamental aspects of human, animal, and machine behavior. These topics will be considered from philosophical and psychological perspectives and explored through robotics and other hands-on experimental labs, in order to develop both a practical and theoretical understanding of behavior.
Prerequisites: Laboratory Science (D) course; Mathematics (M) course. Offered: Occasionally interim, occasionally spring. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in computer science.

PSY340 • Physiological Psychology. 3 Credits.

Physiological and neuroanatomical mechanisms underlying behavior; sensory mechanisms, wakefulness, and attention processes; and brain mechanisms of aggression, fear, pain, thirst, reproductive behavior, learning, and discrimination processes.
Prerequisites: PSY100; Mathematics (M) course. Offered: Fall

PSY341 • Physiological Psychology Lab. 1 Credit.

Lab accompanying PSY340.
Corequisites: PSY340. Offered: Fall.

PSY346 • Animal Behavior. 3 Credits.

Behavior from primitive invertebrates to advanced mammals, highlighting trends in behavior systems. Natural setting studies in the ethology tradition, comparative psychology studies, and biosociological principles with their implications for human social systems.
Prerequisites: One course in biology or PSY100. Offered: Spring, odd # years. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in biological sciences.

PSY347 • Animal Behavior Lab. 1 Credit.

Laboratory course accompanying PSY346.
Corequisites: Concurrent enrollment in PSY346 is required. Offered: Spring, odd # years. Special Notes: Carries cross-credit in biological sciences.

PSY348 • Conditioning and Learning. 3 Credits.

Basic procedures of classical and operant conditioning, theories of learning, and applications of behavioral conditioning principles to selected problems in human learning. Includes laboratory experiences.
Prerequisites: PSY100; Mathematics (M) course. Corequisites: PSY349 must be taken concurrently. Offered: Spring

PSY349 • Conditioning and Learning Lab. 1 Credit.

Lab accompanying PSY348.
Prerequisites: PSY100; Mathematics (M) course. Corequisites: PSY348. Offered: Spring

PSY350 • Cognitive Psychology. 4 Credits.

Psychological theory and research concerning thinking, memory, reasoning, language, and problem solving. Includes laboratory experience.
Prerequisites: PSY100; PSY230M. Offered: Spring

PSY355 • Research Principles and Laboratory. 4 Credits.

Research methods in psychology in the context of designing independent research. Standard research designs (experimental, quasi-experimental, and non-experimental) are evaluated in terms of threats to internal and external validity. Factorial designs, analysis of variance, and regression models are introduced.
Prerequisites: PSY100; PSY230M. Offered: Fall, spring

PSY357 • Research Seminar. 3 Credits.

Students develop a research project with faculty supervision in preparation for independent research. Seminar format allows for in-depth analysis of contemporary issues in the field of psychological science, and students apply these issues to their personal projects.
Prerequisites: PSY100, PSY230M, PSY355, and consent of instructor Offered: Spring.

PSY399 • Topics in Psychology. 3 Credits.

Contemporary concerns in psychology not covered in the current formal course offerings of the department.
Prerequisites: PSY100. Offered: Occasionally

PSY400 • Principles of Counseling and Psychotherapy. 4 Credits.

Introduction and analysis of major therapy systems from Christian and secular perspectives, basic counseling techniques, and current ethical issues facing the counseling professions. Designed for students planning graduate study in human services.
Prerequisites: PSY100; PSY300 or PSY305. Offered: Fall, spring

PSY430 • Advanced Psychopathology. 4 Credits.

Explores issues pertaining to the nature and occurrence of psychological disorders, including classification, cultural context, developmental considerations, etiology, and treatment. Critical evaluation of contemporary theory and research, including conceptualizations, methodologies, and statistical approaches.
Prerequisites: PSY230M; PSY300. Offered: Fall

PSY440 • Sensation and Perception. 4 Credits.

A study of how the brain receives and interprets information from the environment. The biological operation of each of the senses is covered, as well as how the action of sense organs is translated into meaningful perceptions.
Prerequisites: PSY100; at least one of the following: PSY340, BIO100/100D, BIO104/104D, BIO118/118D, BIO122/122D. Offered: Spring, odd # years

PSY481 • Internship in Psychology. 3-4 Credits.

A directed experience relevant to psychology in an off-campus setting.
Prerequisites: Consent of supervising instructor. Offered: Fall, spring

PSY493 • Psychology Internship and Seminar. 4 Credits.

A professionally supervised, applied learning experience in the work world. The senior internship includes a seminar component in which students meet regularly with the Bethel faculty supervisor. This structured experience will facilitate students’ processing of their internship experiences and offer a forum for discussion of internship-related issues.
Prerequisites: Psychology major; senior standing; minimum 2.25 GPA in psychology courses, 2.0 cumulative. Offered: Fall, spring, summer

PSY498 • Research. 2-4 Credits.

Work with a psychology faculty member on an empirical research project. Emphasis on the use of research methodology, techniques, and psychological theory. The work may be spread over two semesters.
Prerequisites: Major in psychology; invitation of supervising faculty member; PSY230M. Grade exceptions: Graded on an S/U basis. Offered: Fall, spring

PSY499 • Senior Seminar. 3 Credits.

Foundational issues in psychology and the interface of psychology, Christianity, and other disciplines. Includes an in-depth individual writing project.
Prerequisites: Major in psychology; senior standing. Offered: Fall, spring