The Department of World Languages and Cultures equips students to be culturally responsive and linguistically competent professionals. Our department prepares graduates to understand, interact with, and serve with people from other cultures. Students learn to see God’s diverse world from new perspectives and become globally aware graduates prepared to culturally engage with communities from a thoughtful, Christian perspective. Courses in the department include language, culture, history, literature, and current issues. Students can choose from American Sign Language (ASL), Chinese, French, and Spanish. Majors are offered in Linguistics, Spanish, and Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL). Majors leading to Minnesota licensure to teach include Spanish K-12 (licensure in world languages: spanish) and Teaching English as a Second Language K-12 (TESL). Programs in the Department of World Languages and Cultures complement majors and minors from many other departments.

Linguistics

The major in linguistics is offered in collaboration with the Summer Institute of Linguistics–University of North Dakota (SIL-UND), the organization that provides training in linguistics for Wycliffe translators and missionaries. Three years of coursework are completed on the Bethel campus and two summers at SIL-UND in Grand Forks, N.D. Students majoring in linguistics can pursue opportunities in many fields, such as: translation, literacy program design, education, writing, research, and community development.

Study Abroad

The Department of World Languages and Cultures requires all language and language education majors to live, study, or teach outside the United States for a semester during their sophomore or junior year. Students majoring in TESL or TEFL are required to teach English abroad for at least three weeks. Bethel offers semester-long programs in Guatemala and Spain (see Off-Campus programs) or students may work with the Office of Off-Campus Programs and the World Languages and Cultures Department to select other programs abroad. In addition, students can participate in interim courses in Spanish-speaking countries.

Placement Evaluation

Prior to enrolling in a language course at Bethel, all students who have previously taken two or more years of the language at the high school level must complete a placement exam given by the department. Prerequisites for the course in which the student places will be waived upon petition. Students wishing to receive credit toward graduation for the courses that have been waived may do so through credit by examination (AP or CLEP) for a fee. Credits earned through examination do not count as electives in the major or minor in any of the world languages offered at Bethel.

Students transferring in college-level credits in the language to be studied may continue with the next course in the sequence at Bethel upon consultation with the department, but may choose to take the placement test to ensure they enroll in the appropriate course for their language skills.

Language Evaluation

Students may fulfill Bethel’s language requirement by:

  1. Completing the second semester of the first year of a (beginning or introductory) college-level language class or higher with a passing grade at Bethel University (e.g., SPA102S Introductory Spanish II or higher course into which student is placed).
  2. Completing the second semester of a first-year (introductory or beginning) college-level language class or higher with grade of C or higher at another college/university (any language other than English).
  3. Earning a score of 3 or better on an Advanced Placement language exam or a score of 50 or better on a language CLEP test.

(See the Academic Information section of this catalog under the General Education Program for further information about the language requirement.)

ASL 101 • Introductory American Sign Language I. 4 Credits.

Designed for students who have no knowledge of American Sign Language (ASL) to allow them to function comfortably in a variety of communication situations. Focuses on development of visual readiness skills and expressive and receptive skills in basic ASL. Includes introduction to conversational vocabulary, fingerspelling, grammatical principles, and syntax. Information related to deaf culture is included.
Offered: Fall, spring.

ASL 102S • Introductory American Sign Language II. 4 Credits.

Continuation of functional and practical understanding and communicative use of ASL. Further study of the history and culture of the deaf community through films, discussions, and readings.
Prerequisites: ASL 101 or placement exam. Offered: Fall, spring

CHI 101 • Introductory Chinese I. 4 Credits.

Development of listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills with an emphasis on promoting communicative competency in Chinese. Opportunities for meaningful communication in Mandarin Chinese.
Offered: Fall.

CHI 102S • Introductory Chinese II. 4 Credits.

Continuation of functional and practical understanding and communicative use of the Chinese language. Further study of Chinese history and culture through films, discussions, and readings.
Prerequisites: CHI 101 or placement exam. Offered: Spring

CHI 201 • Intermediate Chinese I. 4 Credits.

Synthesis and expansion of comprehensive knowledge, grammar, and oral and written communication skills useful in daily interactions. Further development of understanding Chinese culture and societies, and preparation for possible study abroad experience.
Prerequisites: CHI 102S or placement exam. Offered: Occasionally

FRE 101 • Introductory French I. 4 Credits.

Listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Opportunities for oral practice encourage actual communication in French. Use of internet resources familiarizes students with the French-speaking cultures of the world.
Prerequisites: No more than one year of high school French or placement exam. Offered: Fall

FRE 102S • Introductory French II. 4 Credits.

Continuation of functional and practical understanding and communicative use of the French language. Further study of French history and culture through films, discussions, and readings.
Prerequisites: FRE 101 or placement exam. Offered: Spring

LIN 210Z • Introduction to Second Language Acquisition. 3 Credits.

Study of current research and theories of second language acquisition in children and adult learners. Examination of second language learning process and variables that affect second language acquisition. Classroom strategies include differentiating instruction for all language learners. Service learning experience required.
Offered: Fall, spring.

LIN 300 • Introduction to Linguistics. 3 Credits.

A study of three major areas of linguistics: 1) articulatory phonetics, phonology, morphology, and syntax (how units of sound are structured into larger units, forming words and sentences); 2) sociolinguistics (how language functions in society); and 3) psycholinguistics (how children and adults acquire language).
Prerequisites: Two college semesters of a second language or equivalent proficiency. Offered: Fall.

SPA 101 • Introductory Spanish I. 4 Credits.

Listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Opportunities for oral and written practice encourage actual communication in Spanish.
Prerequisites: No more than one year of high school Spanish or placement exam. Offered: Fall, spring

SPA 102S • Introductory Spanish II. 4 Credits.

Continuation of functional and practical understanding and communicative use of the Spanish language. Further study of Spanish history and culture through films, discussions, and readings.
Prerequisites: SPA 101 or placement exam. Offered: Fall, spring

SPA 120A • Photography in Spain. 3 Credits.

Technical and conceptual acquaintance with the medium of photography and its vocabulary within the realm of high art. Includes camera operation, black and white film developing, black and white print processing, and print finishing.
Offered: Fall. Special Notes: Course taught in Spanish. Carries cross-credit in art.

SPA 201 • Intermediate Spanish I. 3 Credits.

Synthesis and expansion of language study in order to further develop communicative language ability. Study of the rich cultural diversity in the Spanish-speaking world.
Prerequisites: SPA 102S or placement exam. Offered: Fall, spring. Special Notes: Students may not receive credit for both SPA 201 and SPA 203.

SPA 202UZ • Intermediate Spanish II. 4 Credits.

A further development of communicative language ability through the study of the rich cultural diversity in the Spanish-speaking world. Topics include religious practices, Hispanics in the United States, and violations of human rights. Service-learning experience required.
Prerequisites: SPA 201 or placement exam; GES 130 (may be taken concurrently) or GES 244 (may be taken concurrently). Offered: Fall, spring. Special Notes: Students may not receive credit for both SPA 202UZ and SPA 204.

SPA 203 • Intensive Intermediate Spanish I in Guatemala. 4 Credits.

Synthesis and expansion of language study in order to further develop communicative language ability. Study of the rich cultural diversity in the Spanish-speaking world, including topics such as family structures, racial diversity, and perspectives on death and the afterlife. Intensive one-on-one interaction with Guatemalan instructor.
Prerequisites: SPA 102S or placement exam. Offered: Spring. Special Notes: Students may not receive credit for both SPA 203 and SPA 201.

SPA 204 • Intensive Intermediate Spanish II in Guatemala. 4 Credits.

A further development of communicative language ability through the study of the rich cultural diversity in the Spanish-speaking world. Topics include religious practices, Hispanics in the United States, and violations of human rights. Intensive one-on-one interaction with Guatemalan instructor.
Prerequisites: SPA 201, SPA 203, or placement exam. Offered: Spring. Special Notes: Students may not receive credit for both SPA 204 and SPA 202UZ.

SPA 208 • Spanish for Health Professionals. 3 Credits.

Designed for those studying or preparing for healthcare professions. Emphasis on building culturally and linguistically competent communication skills with Spanish-speaking immigrants in healthcare settings.
Prerequisites: SPA 201, SPA 203, or placement exam. Offered: Occasionally

SPA 228 • Intensive Language Study in the Spanish-Speaking World. 3 Credits.

Study of the Spanish language and Hispanic culture taught in a Spanish-speaking country through an approved language school. Homestay required.
Prerequisites: Two semesters of intermediate Spanish at the college level or placement exam; consent of Department of World Languages and Cultures. Grade exceptions: Graded on an S/U bases. Offered: Interim, by arrangement. Special Notes: Program must be approved by the Department of World Languages and Cultures in advance. Enrollment is limited.

SPA 290 • Ibero-American History. 3 Credits.

An examination of key historical processes in Spain, Latin America, and the Spanish-speaking communities in the United States with a focus on social, economic, political, geographic, and religious dimensions.
Prerequisites: SPA 202UZ, SPA 204, SPA 208, or placement exam. Offered: Fall, spring

SPA 291 • Ibero-American History in Guatemala. 4 Credits.

An examination of key historical processes in Spain, Latin America, and the Spanish-speaking communities in the United States with a focus on social, economic, political, geographic, and religious dimensions.
Prerequisites: SPA 202UZ, SPA 204, SPA 208, or placement exam. Offered: Spring

SPA 292 • Ibero-American History in Spain. 4 Credits.

An examination of key historical processes in Spain, Latin America, and the Spanish-speaking communities in the United States with a focus on social, economic, political, geographic, and religious dimensions.
Prerequisites: SPA 202UZ or SPA 208. Offered: Fall

SPA 300 • Introduction to Hispanic Literature. 4 Credits.

Readings in novels, essays, short stories, poetry, newspapers, and magazines from Latin America and Spain.
Prerequisites: SPA 290, SPA 291 (may be taken concurrently) or SPA 292 (may be taken concurrently). Offered: Fall (Spain Term) and Spring (Guatemala Term). Special Notes: Students may not receive credit for both SPA 300 and SPA 305.

SPA 301U • Hispanic Cultures. 4 Credits.

Study of the history, traditions, cultural practices, values, and social structures of Latin America and Spain. Service-learning experience may be required.
Prerequisites: GES 130 (may be taken concurrently) or GES 244 (may be taken concurrently); SPA 290, SPA 291, or SPA 292. Offered: Spring. Special Notes: Students may not receive credit for both SPA 301U and SPA 302U.

SPA 302U • Hispanic Cultures: Guatemalan Perspectives. 4 Credits.

Study of the history, traditions, cultural practices, values, and social structures of Latin America and Spain. Intensive one-on-one interaction with on-site instructor and interviews with Guatemalans enhance understanding of cultural issues from a Guatemalan perspective.
Prerequisites: GES 130 (may be taken concurrently) or GES 244 (may be taken concurrently); SPA 290 or SPA 291(may be taken concurrently), or placement exam. Offered: Spring. Special Notes: Students may not receive credit for both SPA 302U and SPA 301U.

SPA 303U • Historic Spain and its Cultures. 4 Credits.

Study of the multi-cultural richness of Spain in its unique history, society, politics, art, film, and music. Students participate in a series of field trips to places of cultural and historical interest in Segovia and to museums in Madrid.
Prerequisites: GES 130 or GES 244 (may be taken concurrently), SPA 290, SPA 292 (May be taken concurrently), or consent of instructor. Offered: Fall.

SPA 305 • Readings from Latin America and Spain. 3 Credits.

Readings in novels, essays, short stories, and poetry from Latin America and Spain.
Prerequisites: SPA 290, SPA 291, or SPA 292. Offered: Fall. Special Notes: Students may not receive credit for both SPA 305 and SPA 300.

SPA 308 • Current Issues in Guatemala. 4 Credits.

Students participating in the Guatemala Term use multiple media sources available to them only in the country and interact with Guatemalan people to learn about political, economic, and social issues. Study of a literary text dealing with political issues in Guatemala is included.
Prerequisites: SPA 300 (may be taken concurrently) or SPA 305. Offered: Spring

SPA 312 • Contemporary Literature. 4 Credits.

Prose and poetry from selected contemporary Latin American and Spanish authors.
Prerequisites: SPA 300 or SPA 305. Offered: Fall, even # years

SPA 313 • Classical Literature. 4 Credits.

Prose and poetry from the classical literature of Spain.
Prerequisites: SPA 300 or SPA 305. Offered: Fall, odd # years

SPA 316 • Modern Spain: An Examination of Ethics - Spain. 4 Credits.

An examination of moral and ethical questions during the Spanish Civil War, the Franco regime, and post-Franco Spain. Topics include national unity, justice, political assassination, the responsibility of individuals in society, Basque nationalism, the role of the United States, immigration, and the role of the Catholic Church.
Prerequisites: SPA 305 or concurrent enrollment in SPA 300. Offered: Fall

SPA 317 • Advanced Communication in Spain. 4 Credits.

Further development of communicative ability in Spanish, including reading, writing, listening, and conversational skills. Students write compositions, participate in discussions, have conversational exchanges with Spanish university students, give presentations, and read short essays.
Prerequisites:SPA 301U or SPA 303U (May be taken concurrently), or consent of instructor. Offered: Fall

SPA 318 • Classical Literature in Spain. 4 Credits.

Prose and poetry from the classical literature of Spain.
Prerequisites: SPA 305 or concurrent enrollment in SPA 300. Offered: Fall. Special Notes: Students may not receive credit for both SPA 318 and SPA 313.

SPA 322 • Advanced Spanish Communication. 4 Credits.

Further development of communicative abilities in Spanish including reading, creative and academic writing, formal and informal discussions and debate, and formal presentation skills.
Prerequisites: SPA 301U, SPA 302U, or SPA 303U. Offered: Spring.

SPA 323 • Advanced Spanish Communication in Guatemala. 4 Credits.

Further development of communicative abilities in Spanish including reading, creative and academic writing, formal and informal discussions and debate, and formal presentation skills.
Prerequisites: SPA 301U, SPA 302U, or SPA 303U (may be taken concurrently). Offered: Spring

SPA 327 • Marketing and Management in Spain. 3 Credits.

Theoretical and practical concepts of marketing and management in the semi-globalized world. Understand the significant challenges globalization presents to management and marketing, specifically in the context of Spain. Business terminology and reality in a Spanish business environment.
Prerequisites: SPA 202UZ. (Carries cross-credit in business.) Offered: Fall. Special Notes: The class is taught and assignments are completed in Spanish.

SPA 481 • Internship in Spanish. 3-4 Credits.

Cross-cultural experience to apply and expand Spanish communication knowledge and skills in an off-campus setting. Placements must be at an organization or business within the Latino community or in the Spanish-speaking world. Must be planned in advance of placement in consultation with the Department of World Languages and Cultures.
Prerequisites: Spanish major or minor, or enrollment in Spain or Guatemala Term. Offered: Fall, interim, spring, summer

SPA 499 • Senior Seminar. 4 Credits.

An in-depth study and presentation of a topic related to Hispanic cultures, literatures, or the Spanish language. Service-learning experience may be required.
Prerequisites: Major in Spanish; senior standing. Offered: Fall

TEL 230 • Introduction to Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages. 3 Credits.

Overview of the field of teaching English to speakers of other languages (TESOL) for those considering employment in schools in the U.S. or abroad, or serving in missions or in the local community. Provides basic skills and resources for anyone interacting with new Americans.
Offered: Occasionally interim or spring.

TEL 240 • TESOL Practicum Abroad. 1 Credit.

In consultation with the department, students select a program outside the United States in which they tutor English as a foreign language for at least three weeks. Prior to departure, students complete a study of the culture in which they will be living. Students share their experiences in a colloquium of TESL/TEFL majors upon their return.
Prerequisites: LIN 210Z; consent of the Department of World Languages and Cultures. Grade exceptions: Graded on an S/U basis. Offered: By arrangement

TEL 301 • Analysis of the English Language. 3 Credits.

Overview of the English language structure geared to the needs of teachers of English to speakers of other languages (both EFL and ESL). Understanding and application of English grammar and pronunciation with the purpose of being able to explain various grammatical aspects and provide answers to student questions concerning English grammar.
Prerequisites: LIN 210Z or LIN 300. Offered: Spring, odd # years

TEL 305 • Teaching Language Skills for Second Language Learners. 3 Credits.

The principles of teaching listening and speaking skills to second language learners. Strategies for teaching language skills including using authentic materials, creating meaningful communicative activities, and teaching with Total Physical Response (TPR) and Total Profiency Through Reading and Storytelling (TPRS). Students create lesson plans and practice teaching with these strategies.
Offered: Fall.

TEL 320 • Curriculum Development and Assessment. 3 Credits.

Development of curricula for EFL/ESL students in various settings and with various needs, including special education. Appropriate teaching and assessment materials for the EFL/ESL classroom.
Prerequisites: LIN 210Z. Offered: Spring. Special Notes: Can be taken concurrently with EDU 400.

TEL 481 • Internship in TESL/TEFL. 3-4 Credits.

Supervised experience in an overseas school program or with a local agency to apply knowledge of and skills in teaching English to non-native speakers.
Prerequisites: Major or minor in TEFL. Offered: Fall, interim, spring